The National Civil Aviation Administration (ANAC) created by Executive Decree No. 239/2007 is the governmental entity in charge of civil aviation matters, which verifies compliance with the Argentine Aeronautical Code, the Air Policy as stated by Law No. 19030, international treaties and agreements, and all applicable regulations related to civil air transportation.
Executive Decree No. 1840/2011 provided that the Argentine Air Force under the Ministry of Defence should be in charge of air traffic control, which will be overseen by ANAC.
Slots are granted by ANAC taking into account international agreements in relation to air traffic rights and the previous approval by the Argentine Air Force and airport authorities as set forth by Executive Decree No. 1770/2007 and Resolution ANAC No. 764/2010.
Code-sharing operations should be authorised by ANAC, which verifies compliance with Section 110 of the Aeronautical Code, which provides that agreements that imply business or service pooling, connecting, consolidating or merging arrangements shall be subject to prior approval by the aviation authority. Article 2 of Executive Decree
No. 1401/98 establishes that for code-sharing or joint operation proposals to be approved, air operators should be holders of approvals or licences that allow them to operate the air service that is the subject matter of the code-sharing agreement.
As to domestic air fares applicable to scheduled air services, the Secretariat of Transport indicates periodically the maximum amounts of economy class fares that air carriers can apply.
Air policy is established by Law No. 19,030, as amended by Law No. 19,534. Foreign air carriers may operate international air services pursuant to the terms provided by the treaties and bilateral air services agreements entered into by Argentina.
Chapter 7, Article 138 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that routes that represent a general interest for the country may receive subsidies. There are also benefits for domestic air carriers in relation to fuel prices. Aerolineas Argentinas, a state-owned company, receives funds from the national budget and the current administration is highly protective of its operation.
II LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR LIABILITY
i International carriage
Argentina has ratified, among others, the following international multilateral conventions:
- a Decree-Law No. 15,110/46 ratified the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention 1944). Said Decree-Law was ratified by Law No. 13,891. Law No. 25,622 approved the Protocol on the Authentic Six Language Text of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 1 October 1998.
- b Law No. 14,111 ratified the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed on 12 October 1929 (the Warsaw Convention).
- c Law No. 17,386 ratified the Protocol modifying the Warsaw Convention signed at The Hague on 28 September 1955.
- d Law No. 23,556 ratified the Montreal Protocols, signed in Montreal on 25 September 1975.
- e Law No. 17,404 ratified the Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface, signed in Rome on 7 October 1952.
- f Law No. 20,411 ratified the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, signed in Montreal on 23 September 1971.
- g Law No. 23,111 ratified the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to the Precautionary Attachment of Aircraft, signed in Rome on 29 May 1933.
- h Law No. 23.915 ratified the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving Civil Aviation signed in Montreal on 23 September 1971.
- i Law No. 25,806 ratified the sub-regional agreement with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay signed in Fortaleza on 17 December 1996.
- j Law No. 26.451 ratified the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (the Montreal Convention 1999). The instrument of accession by Argentina contains the following interpretative declaration: ‘For the Argentine Republic, the term "bodily injury" in Article 17 of this treaty includes mental injury related to bodily injury, or any other mental injury which affects the passenger's health in such a serious and harmful way that his or her ability to perform everyday tasks is significantly impaired.'
- k Decree-Law No. 12,359/57, which was ratified by Law No. 14,467, ratified the Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft signed in Geneva on 19 June 1948.
- l Law No. 18,730 ratified the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On Board Aircraft signed in Tokyo on 14 September 1963.
- m Law No. 19,793 ratified the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft signed in The Hague on 16 December 1970.
- n Law No. 27,357, published in the Official Gazzette on 2 June 2017, whereby Argentina ratified the Convention on Mobile Equipment and its Protocol on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment, signed in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa, on 16 November 2001.
ii Internal and other non-convention carriage
Article 92 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that air transportation service is any act aimed at transporting people or things in an aircraft, from one airport to another and that aerial work comprises all commercial air commercial operations excluding transportation.
Article 131 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that to perform aerial work in any of the specialities, the operators should obtain prior authorisation from ANAC, which will verify their technical and financial capacity.
iii General aviation regulation
Article 36 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code sets forth that any equipment or mechanisms that may fly in the airspace and that would be suitable to transport people or things will be considered as aircraft.
This definition includes helicopters and microlights. As such they have to comply with regulations that provide that aircraft should have registration and airworthiness certificates pursuant to Article 10 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code.
The provisions included in the Argentine Aeronautical Code and international treaties ratified by Argentina are applicable to any aircraft. Pursuant to Article 139 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code, the carrier shall be liable for the damage caused by the death or bodily injury suffered by any passenger when the accident that caused the damage has occurred on board the aircraft or during take-off or landing operations.
The carrier should also have mandatory insurance in relation to the employees and in relation to the damage they may cause to transported passengers, cargo and third parties on the surface.
iv Passenger rights
Resolution No. 1532/98 issued by the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services sets forth the General Conditions of the Contract for Carriage by Air, which regulate the rights and obligations of the parties including passenger protection rules in cases of delays, cancellation and denied boarding.
On 12 April 2013, Resolution No. 203/2013 issued by ANAC was published in the Official Gazette, whereby Article 12 of the Resolution No. 1532/98 was amended stating that air carriers will be excluded from the provision of the following services free of charge at the airport where adverse climate conditions cause delays or cancellations, delay in the delivery of luggage, a stop could not be made as scheduled or at the destination or in the case of loss of a connecting flight with a confirmed reservation:
- a phone communication to the point of destination and local calls;
- b food and beverages according to the waiting time until boarding of the next flight;
- c hotel accommodation, either at the airport or in the city, after a four-hour delay; and
- d shuttle services to and from the airport.
Notwithstanding the above, the air carrier should take all the possible measures it can to provide passengers with adequate and truthful information about the delays caused by said circumstances until it can either provide or resume its transportation services or passengers can be rerouted through the services of another air carrier or an alternative means of transportation.
Consumer Protection Law No. 24,240 as amended by Law No. 26,361 provides that regulations of the Argentine Aeronautical Code and international treaties will be applicable as priority pieces of legislation.
In relation to discrimination, Argentina is a party to applicable international treaties, which include the following:
- a the Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Persons With Disabilities, signed in Guatemala, and ratified by Law
- b the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ratified by Law
- c the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, ratified by Law No. 17,722;
- d the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, ratified by Law No. 23,179; and
- e the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, ratified by Law No. 23,338.
Law No. 22,431 created a comprehensive protection system for persons with disabilities, which provided the requirement to avoid the creation of physical barriers in buildings, and for transportation to allow access to persons with reduced mobility. Decree No. 914/97 related to Law No. 22,431 provided that in relation to air transportation the following benefits should be provided to passengers with reduced mobility and communication:
- a safe and comfortable entrance and exit of the aircraft by means of mechanical or alternative systems that exclude physical effort should be allowed;
- b a special wheelchair to be used in the aisles of the aircraft to allow a non-walking person to reach his or her seat;
- c seats located in the aisles with foldable armrests for persons with reduced mobility; and
- d general and emergency information, provided orally to all passengers and in a written form, in printed maps and in Braille so that blind persons can locate emergency exits.
In addition, the above-mentioned Resolution No. 1532/98 issued by the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services sets forth the General Conditions of the Contract for Carriage by Air, which states that in domestic flights disabled passengers will be authorised to travel with their guide dogs in the aircraft cabin free of charge (Article 9).
Law No. 23,592 prohibits and penalises discriminatory actions or omissions that may restrict the full exercise of constitutional rights based on race, religion, nationality, ideology, political or union opinion, sex, economic position, social condition or physical characteristics.
v Other legislation
The Argentine Criminal Code provides that any person who performs any action that endangers the safety of an aircraft shall be punished with two to eight years' imprisonment. If the act results in an air disaster, punishment shall be six to 15 years' imprisonment.
If the act causes injuries to a person, punishment shall be six to 15 years' imprisonment and, if it causes a person's death, 10 to 25 years' imprisonment (Article 190).
Those who, without creating a common dangerous situation, prevent, obstruct or hinder the normal operation of the air transport shall be punished with three months to two years' imprisonment (Article 194).
Pilots, mechanics and other employees who abandon their position during their corresponding services before arriving at their destination shall be punished with one month to one year's imprisonment, if the act does not imply a more severely punished crime (Article 195).
Those who, because of imprudence or negligence, unskilfulness in their art or profession or non-compliance with the regulations or ordinances, cause a derailment, shipwreck or any other accident provided for in this chapter, shall be punished with six months to three years' imprisonment. If a person is injured or dies as a result of the crime, one to five years' imprisonment shall be imposed (Article 196).
Article 198 provides that the following shall be punished with three to 15 years' imprisonment:
2º. those practising any act of pillage or violence against an aircraft in flight or while it is performing the operations immediately before the flight, or against persons or things therein, without being authorised by any belligerent power or exceeding the limits of a legitimately granted authorisation;
3º. those who, by means of violence, intimidation or deception, misappropriate a vessel or an aircraft to take possession thereof or to dispose of the things or persons therein;
4º. those who, in collusion with pirates, deliver a vessel or an aircraft, their cargo or what belongs to their passengers or crew to them;
5º. those who, with threats or violence, oppose the commander or the crew's defence of the vessel or aircraft being attacked by pirates;
6º. those who, on their behalf or on behalf of others, equip a vessel or an aircraft intended for piracy;
7º. those who, from the Argentine territory, knowingly traffic with pirates or provide them with aid.
Article 199 sets forth that if the acts of violence or hostility mentioned in the preceding article are followed by the death of a person having been attacked in the aircraft, punishment shall be 10 to 25 years' imprisonment.
III LICENSING OF OPERATIONS
i Licensed activities
Individuals or corporations domiciled in Argentina may be granted authorisation to provide domestic air services. Foreign air carriers shall not be authorised to provide passenger, cargo or mail transportation within the Argentine territory. Article 97 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that the executive power, for general interest reasons, may authorise foreign companies to perform domestic air services, subject to reciprocity. Since 2016, the new government administration changed previous policies granting authorisation to new air carriers to enter the market. After several years, a public hearing was held on 27 December 2016, where several air carriers stated their interest to provide their services.
Article 105 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that no concession or authorisation shall be granted without prior verification of the operator's technical and economic-financial capacity, as well as its ability to use the airport, auxiliary services, and flight material in a proper manner. The procedure to obtain a licence to operate air services is ruled by Law No. 19,030 as amended by Law No. 19,534 and by Executive Order No. 1492/1992 as amended by Executive Order No. 2186/1992.
ii Ownership rules
Sections 98 and 99 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code set forth that domestic air transportation may only be provided by Argentine individuals or legal entities domiciled in Argentina. Corporate officers that exercise the control and management of the company should have their domicile in Argentina. The president of the board of directors, the managers and at least two-thirds of the directors and administrators should be Argentinian.
The majority of the voting shares of corporations that provide domestic air services should be nominative and held by Argentine shareholders domiciled in the country. Pursuant to Section 2 of Executive Decree No. 52/94 said provision is also applicable to Argentine legal entities that provide international air services following Article 128 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code.
iii Foreign carriers
To operate scheduled services to and from Argentina, bilateral and multilateral air services agreements would be analysed by ANAC in terms of air traffic rights, capacity, frequencies, cargo capacity, etc.
Foreign-registered operators will have to register a branch office in Argentina before the tax authorities and the Superintendency of Corporations. They will have to submit, among other documentation, a diplomatic designation, the air operator's certificate, registration and airworthiness certificates of the aircraft and an insurance certificate.
Argentina has signed several bilateral agreements and memoranda of consultation on air transport services with different countries.
Safety regulations are issued by ANAC, which verifies compliance with, among other regulations, requirements set forth by the Civil Aviation Aeronautical Regulations, the Argentine Airworthiness Regulations, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recommended standards, and the Aeronautical Information Service.
The Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that air activities in certain areas of the Argentine territory may be prohibited or restricted for reasons of national security, public interest or flight safety (Article 8). Carriage of things posing a risk for flight safety shall be ruled by the aviation authorities. In no case shall carriage of hazardous materials in aircraft carrying passengers be authorised, except for radioactive material, which may be transported pursuant to the regulations issued by the competent authority and subject to inspection (Article 9). Executive Decree No. 2416/85 sets forth that domestic carriage of dangerous goods will be ruled by the provisions of Annex 18 of the Chicago Convention 1944, as well as its technical documentation.
No aircraft shall fly without having the licence, the airworthiness certificates and the logbooks required by the regulations. Aircraft that are built, are repaired or undergo modifications shall not perform any flights whatsoever without having been previously inspected and the repair works having been approved by the aviation authority or by technicians expressly authorised thereby. The same procedure shall be followed when the aircraft airworthiness certificate has expired (Article 10). Aircraft should be equipped with radio devices for communication and they must have a licence issued by the competent authority. The aviation authority shall determine the aircraft that may be exempted from having said equipment (Article 11). ANAC shall carry out verifications related to persons, aircraft, crew and carried goods, before departure, during the flight or at landing or at its apron, and take the proper measures for flight safety (Article 12). A mechanic authorised by the Argentine aviation authorities must verify the safety conditions of the aircraft before take-off.
Accident investigations are ruled by Annex 13 of the Chicago Convention, Title IX (Articles 185 to 190) of the Argentine Aeronautical Code and Decree No. 934/1970.
The Board of Investigations of Civil Aviation Accidents pursuant to Decree
No. 1193/2010 develops its activities as an autonomous entity within the Secretariat of Transport. It is in charge of the technical investigation of civil aviation accidents and incidents to determine their causes and recommend efficient actions aimed at avoiding the occurrence of accidents and incidents in the future.
The Board of Investigations of Civil Aviation Accidents issued on 12 April 2017, Resolution No. 55/2017 (published in the Official Gazette) whereby it established that physical persons and legal entities, national or foreign, private or public, and the agencies to whom the Board's recommendations were addressed should inform to the Board their actions aiming to comply with said recommendations within a term of 60 business days as from notice of the Board's approval of the final report.
Title X of the Argentine Aeronautical Code (Sections 191 to 196) provides that the aircraft operator should have the following insurance:
- a labour insurance;
- b liability insurance in relation to passengers, baggage and shipped goods;
- c insurance in relation to liability for surface damage; and
- d as set forth by Section 193, it is mandatory for the authorisation of the operation of foreign aircraft to have an insurance policy that covers damage that could be caused by the aircraft to carried persons and goods as well as third parties on the surface as stated in the Argentine Aeronautical Code and the international conventions.
In Docket No. 11575/2002, dated 8 February 2013, the Federal Civil and Commercial Court of Appeals, Chamber II, ruled in favour of the Argentine Association of Insurance Companies together with 12 insurance companies that had filed legal actions against the executive power challenging as unconstitutional Emergency Executive Decree No. 1654/02, and its extension No. 1012/06, whereby it was stated that in view of the country facing an economic crisis and the higher local insurance costs, the Argentine air carriers were exempted from taking out local insurance. On 27 October 2015, the Supreme Court confirmed the Court of Appeal's decision, which held that the Emergency Executive Decrees were unconstitutional and that the ordinary procedure for the enactment of a law should have been followed.
Law No. 25,156 penalises cases of market distortion owing to an abuse of a dominant position that affect the general interest, imposing fines on companies whose conduct could be considered against the regulations of the Law. The legislation is intended to avoid concentration and manipulation of prices that result in price distortions that affect the economic public interest.
The Argentine Federation of Associations of Travel Agencies (FAEVYT) initiated legal actions before court against Aerolineas Argentinas and Austral (Docket No. 9062/2016 - Federal Civil and Commercial Court of Appeals - Chamber I - Federacion Argentina de Asociaciones de Empresas de Viajes y Turismo FAEVYT v. Aerolineas Argentinas et al ), requesting the Court to establish the percentage that the air carriers should pay to travel agencies as a reasonable commission or remuneration for their services. FAEVYT also requested that the Court, as a precautionary measure, prohibit AU/AR to implement its decision whereby travel agencies' commissions would be eliminated.
On 31 January 2017, the Federal Civil and Commercial Court of Appeals confirmed the decision held by the First Instance Court, which had rejected the precautionary measure since according to the procedural regulations said decision could only be considered once the Court held its final decision having assessed the arguments posed and the evidence rendered by the parties at the end of the whole procedure.
Taking into account the fact that this decision was held on the last day of summer Court holidays where only urgent matters are decided, the Federal Civil and Commercial Court of Appeals held that it was not an urgent matter to be assessed during said period.
VII WRONGFUL DEATH
Depending on the personal characteristics of the deceased including age, life expectancy and income, the life value would be assessed in order to consider the amount of compensation to be awarded within the limitations established by the Aeronautical Code.
VIII ESTABLISHING LIABILITY AND SETTLEMENT
In some provinces and the federal jurisdiction, a mediation stage is mandatory before litigation at court in relation to civil and commercial liability claims. If the parties cannot reach settlement during mediation, the claimant is entitled to start legal action before the courts.
Article 228 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code provides that claims for liability compensation arising from damage caused to transported passengers, baggage or cargo in domestic air carriage should be legally filed within one year. The term is calculated from the arrival at destination or the day when the aircraft should have arrived or the detention of transport or the moment when the person is declared absent with presumption of death.
ii Carriers' liability towards passengers and third parties
Title VII of the Argentine Aeronautical Code (Sections 139 to 174) rules air operators' liability in relation to damage caused to carried passengers, luggage, cargo and third parties on the surface.
The air carrier shall be liable for the damages resulting from the death or corporal injury sustained by a passenger because of an accident on board or during take-off or landing operations. Also, the air carrier shall be liable for delayed arrival at destination and in cases of destruction, loss or damage to registered luggage and cargo.
Liability shall be limited, but the air carrier shall not be entitled to limit its liability where damage derived from its wilful misconduct, or that of the persons under its responsibility in the performance of their duties. The air carrier will not be held liable if it proves that it had taken all the necessary measures to avoid the damage, that it was impossible to take them or if it proves that the person who suffered the damage contributed to it.
Any person suffering as a third-party damage on the ground shall be entitled to relief just by proving that the damage was caused by an aircraft in flight or of a person or item that fell or was thrown from it or from its unusual noise. However, there shall be no possibility of relief if the damage was not a direct consequence of the event giving rise to it.
Argentina has ratified the Warsaw Convention, the Hague and Montreal Protocols as well as the Montreal Convention as detailed in Section II.i, supra.
In cases of aviation accidents, criminal proceedings have also been pursued that involved company officers as well as private and public officers such as airport managers and airport security managers, airport weather observers, airport administrators and air traffic directors, among others.
On 26 December 2016, the Federal Civil and Commercial Court of Appeals, Chamber II, in re Echeverria, Erika Andrea v. Lan Airlines SA reversed the decision held by the first instance court, which had dismissed the complaint filed by the plaintiff requesting compensation for the alleged damage of a piece of her luggage after a flight from Montreal to Buenos Aires via Lima. The claimant argued that 15 pieces of luggage were dispatched, as she was returning to Argentina with her husband and three children after living in Canada for three years. She further argued that while in Lima she was informed that her luggage had been cut and she was requested to identify it. She made the claim to LAN at Lima Airport. The lower court had accepted the defendant's argument that Lan Airlines SA was not the operating carrier and, therefore, could not be sued in this case. Also, one of the judges of the Court of Appeals assessed that the claimant's luggage suffered the loss during a flight operated by Lan Peru SA, which was the authorised operating carrier, as stated in the documentation submitted by the Argentine Civil Aviation Authorities (ANAC) and, therefore, in his opinion the decision held by the first instance court should be confirmed. However, the other two judges of the Court of Appeals held the contrary opinion, highlighting that the ticket included the reference ‘issued by Lan Airlines' and the baggage tags indicated ‘LAN'. Making reference to CM99 (Articles 39 and 40), the defendant was held liable and condemned to compensate for material damage and emotional distress sustained by the plaintiff.
iii Product liability
With regard to product liability, the Argentine Aeronautical Code refers to the air operator. The manufacturer's liability may be applicable in relation to civil legislation governing liability arising from defective products.
The aircraft operator is the person using the aircraft legitimately on his or her own behalf, even not for profit. The owner shall be considered the aircraft operator except when said capacity has been transferred by means of an agreement duly registered before the National Aircraft Registry (Articles 65 and 66 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code).
The registration of the agreement releases the owner from the operator's liabilities, which shall be the exclusive responsibility of the air operator. If the agreement has not been registered, the owner and the operator shall be jointly and severally liable for any violation of applicable regulations or damage produced because of the aircraft (Article 67 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code).
According to Article 144, the air carrier's liability in relation to passengers should be limited to the amount equal in pesos to 1,000 argentinos oro.
In relation to damage sustained by third parties on the surface, according to Article 160 of the Argentine Aeronautical Code the operator shall be liable for every accident up to the limit of the amount equal, in pesos, to the number of argentinos oro resulting from the following scale, according to the quotation they have at the moment when the event generating the liability takes place:
- a 2,000 argentinos oro for aircraft heavier than 1,000 kilograms;
- b 2,000 argentinos oro plus 1.5 argentinos oro for each kilogram over 1,000 for aircraft heavier than 1,000 and lighter than 6,000 kilograms;
- c 10,400 argentinos oro plus 1 argentinos oro for each kilogram over 6,000 for aircraft heavier than 6,000 and lighter than 20,000 kilograms;
- d 25,000 argentinos oro plus 0.5 argentinos oro for each kilogram over 20,000 for aircraft heavier than 20,000 and lighter than 50,000 kilograms; and
- e 43,600 argentinos oro plus 0.37 argentinos oro for each kilogram over 50,000 for aircraft heavier than 50,000 kilograms.
Compensation in cases of death or injury shall not exceed 2,000 argentinos oro per deceased or injured person.
In cases of personal injuries or property damages, half of the amount to be distributed shall be preferentially allocated to compensate the personal injuries. The remainder of the total amount to be distributed shall be shared proportionally between the compensation for property damages and the part of the other compensation that is not covered.
For the purposes of this chapter, ‘weight' means the maximum weight authorised by the aircraft airworthiness certificate.
Pursuant to Article 162, the operator shall not be entitled to limit its liability, when damage derives from its wilful misconduct or that of the persons under its responsibility when performing their duties.
Moral damages are generally awarded in most liability cases even in cases of delayed arrival at destination. There are no provisions in relation to condolence money.
IX VOLUNTARY REPORTING
The Civil Aviation Board of Accident Investigation (JIAAC) has an online anonymous form and a 24-hour contact centre where aviation accidents and incidents can be reported. On 4 October 2013, JIAAC issued Resolution No. 64/13 that, pursuant to Annex 13 of the Chicago Convention, established that reports obtained from JIAAC during the course of the investigation should be kept confidential at the Investigations Direction of JIAAC including all the depositions obtained, the communications between the persons who have participated in the operation of the aircraft, medical or personal information of persons involved in the accident or incident, conversation recordings of pilots position and their transcripts, conversation recordings of air transit control agencies and their transcripts, image recordings of pilots position and the opinions stated in the analysis of the information including voice registration recordings.
X THE YEAR IN REVIEW
On 22 June 2016, ANAC issued Resolution No. 457/2016 whereby it established the fees applicable to obtain the authorisation to operate remotely operated aerial vehicles.
On 21 December 2016, Insurance Superintendency issued Resolution No. 40250/2016 whereby it approved the Contractual Conditions of Civil Liability Insurance applicable to remotely operated aerial vehicles.
On 2 June 2017, it was published in the Official Gazette Law No. 27,357 whereby Argentina ratified the Convention on Mobile Equipment and its Protocol on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment, signed in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa on 16 November 2001.
1 Ana Luisa Gondar is a legal counsel at Gondar & Asociados.