I INTRODUCTION

The banking system in the People's Republic of China (PRC)2 used to be monopolised by the People's Bank of China (PBOC),3 first as the only bank, then later as the central bank of the PRC. After China started its economic reform and began opening up in 1978, and since the early 1980s, China has gradually opened its banking industry to embrace diversified ownerships and sophisticated businesses. The Chinese banking system is still evolving under various reforms.4

In the early 1980s, the government allowed four state-owned specialised banks to accept deposits and conduct banking business, namely:

  1. the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC);5
  2. the China Construction Bank (CCB);6
  3. the Bank of China (BOC);7 and
  4. the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC).8

In 1986, the Bank of Communications (BCM)9 opened for business after being restructured into the first state-owned joint-stock commercial bank. Since then, ICBC, CCB, BOC, ABC and BCM have secured their position as the five largest commercial banks in the PRC measured by gross assets. In addition, the Postal Savings Bank of China (PSBC)10 is now regarded as the sixth state-owned large commercial bank according to the latest official list of banking institutions in 2019.11 These six banks have all conducted initial public offerings (IPOs) and have diversified their state ownership to the public. Despite these IPOs, they are all still majority-owned by the central government.

Apart from the six big banks, since the mid-1990s there have been 12 nationwide joint-stock banks, including CITIC Bank,12 Hua Xia Bank13 and Minsheng Bank,14 which have diverse equity structures comprising state ownership and private or foreign shareholding, as well as 134 city commercial banks.15 Since 2014, the government has also promoted the participation of private capital in the financial sector. To date, 17 privately owned banks have been approved, including internet banks, such as the Zhejiang E-Commerce Bank and the Shenzhen WeBank. These two banks were founded by the internet giants Alibaba and Tencent to provide internet financial services.

To encourage constructional, industrial and agricultural development, in 1994 China established three policy banks to fulfil special lending services for construction projects, import and export companies and the agricultural sector.16 There are also banks in China dedicated to rural areas of the country.17 In addition, foreign banks are allowed to establish subsidiaries and branches in China, and to make strategic investments in Chinese-funded commercial banks.18

By the end of 2018, the total assets of the Chinese banking system were 261.4 trillion yuan. This volume marked an increase of 6.4 per cent year-on-year, with the five-largest commercial banks controlling 92.7 trillion yuan, or approximately 35.5 per cent of the total assets.19

Banking business in the PRC is primarily supervised and regulated by the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC) (formerly known as the China Banking Regulatory Commission),20 together with the central bank, the PBOC, which is responsible, among other things, for formulating and implementing monetary policy. In addition, non-banking financial institutions, such as trust companies, financial leasing companies, foreign exchange companies, consumer financial companies and automobile financial companies, are also under the administration of the CBIRC.

II tHE REGULATORY REGIME APPLICABLE TO BANKS

Companies planning to conduct banking business or the business of taking deposits in the PRC are required under the PRC Law on Regulation and Supervision over Banking Industry (Banking Regulation Law) to be approved by the CBIRC.

i Main regulatory body

The CBIRC was formed via the merger of the CBRC and the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) as part of the efforts of the central government to improve the efficiency of financial regulation and eliminate regulatory arbitrage. The CBIRC is responsible for drafting and promulgating the rules and regulations governing the banking and insurance sectors in China. It also examines and oversees banks and insurance companies, collects and publishes statistics on the banking system, approves the establishment or expansion of banks, and resolves potential liquidity, solvency or other problems that might occur to individual banks.

The CBRC (now the CBIRC) was founded in 2003 to play the role of supervisor and regulator in the banking sector, which role previously was performed by the PBOC. Nonetheless, the PBOC still has considerable influence over the PRC banking system. Aside from the typical central bank responsibility of monetary policy and representing the PRC in international forums, the PBOC is also in charge of reducing overall financial risk and promoting the stability of the financial system. Its supervision over interbank markets, foreign exchange markets, the payment and settlement system and the credit information system interim is crucial to the operation of banks in the PRC. Moreover, according to the Statement on the State Council's Institutional Reform Plan (2018),21 some authorities for drafting key regulations and prudential oversight of banking and insurance companies has been transferred from the CBRC (now the CBIRC) to the PBOC.

ii Banking regulation structure

The PRC banking regulation structure is three-tiered.

At the top level sits legislation enacted by the National People's Congress, including Banking Regulation Law (2006), People's Bank of China Law (2003) and the Law of the PRC on Commercial Banks (2015) (Commercial Banks Law). Further important regulations concerning foreign banks were formulated by the State Council, namely the Regulations on Administration of Foreign-Funded Banks (2015) (Foreign-Funded Banks Regulations). The then-CBRC (now the CBIRC) subsequently issued interpretive rules to implement these Regulations.

The second tier consists of regulatory policies issued by the CBIRC, which reiterate the legislative principles set out in the legislation enacted by the National People's Congress and the State Council. A range of policy matters were addressed by the then-CBRC. These are guidelines to the CBIRC's regulatory and supervisory directions over the medium to long term. The medium-term goal of the CBIRC focuses on a prudential framework, whereas the long-term goal is to establish a fair and competitive market.

The third tier consists of the CBIRC's guidance, notices and rules. Most of the CBIRC's regulatory rules fall into this category. As China finds specific measures more helpful than a principles-based approach, the guidance, notices and rules are prescriptive in content and abundant in number. In general, the third tier of regulatory rules serves as the bottom rung of China's banking regulations, and deals with contemporary regulatory issues.

iii Licensing of banks

In terms of licensing, banks in the PRC are divided into two general categories: Chinese-funded banks and foreign-funded banks. The division is based on the status that the individual bank gained at its establishment. In other words, if foreign investors buy into an established Chinese-funded bank as promoters or strategic investors, that bank would keep its original status as a Chinese-funded bank in respect of its supervision and regulation by the CBIRC.22

Licensing for Chinese-funded banks

Commercial banks in the PRC are primarily governed by the Commercial Banks Law, and are licensed to undertake banking activities by the CBIRC or its local counterparts. To implement licensed bank activities, the CBIRC has promulgated the Implementing Measures for Administrative Licensing Matters Related to Chinese-funded Commercial Banks (Chinese-funded Commercial Banks Measures),23 which apply to the six aforementioned biggest commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, urban commercial banks and the like, and the Implementing Measures for Administrative Licensing Matters Related to Rural Small and Medium-sized Financial Institutions,24 which apply to rural commercial banks, rural cooperative banks, rural credit cooperatives, county banks, etcetera. According to these two sets of measures, the establishment, transforming or termination, and the business scope, of a commercial bank, as well as of its domestic and overseas branches, are subject to the approval of the CBIRC or its local counterparts. If a commercial bank intends to raise or issue debts and capital supplement instruments, or operate foreign exchange business, derivative products transaction business, credit card business, offshore banking business and other business, it shall seek approval from the CBIRC or its local counterparts separately. The PBOC's approval is required if commercial banks intend to conduct the business of settlement and sale of foreign exchange.

Licensing for foreign-funded banks

According to the Foreign-Funded Banks Regulations, foreign financial institutions are allowed to establish wholly foreign-owned banks or Sino–foreign joint venture banks in the PRC, provided the sole or major foreign investor is a commercial bank with no less than US$10 billion of assets and meets the prudential requirements as specified by the CBIRC. Foreign commercial banks are also allowed to establish branches, subsidiaries and representative offices in the PRC in accordance with different prudential requirements as specified by the CBIRC. For example, to establish branches in the PRC, a foreign commercial bank shall have no less than US$20 billion of assets, and shall meet other prudential requirements as specified by the CBIRC.

Similar to Chinese-funded banks, foreign-funded banks shall obtain the CBIRC's approval for its establishment, any changes to its shareholders and business scope, and its termination. Foreign-funded banks shall seek separate approval from the CBIRC for debts and capital supplement instruments issuance, yuan business, derivative products transaction business, credit card business and other business, and shall seek separate approval from the PBOC for the business of settlement and sale of foreign exchange. However, foreign banks' branches are excluded from conducting agency collection and payment, credit card business and yuan business towards Chinese citizens, except absorbing fixed-time deposits from Chinese citizens in an amount of no less than 1 million yuan. The representative offices are only allowed to engage in non-business operations related to the foreign banks represented by such offices, such as liaison, market survey and consultation activities.

iv Securities activities

The Chinese bond market is now one of the largest in the world (only second to the US), with an estimated US$12 trillion as at June 2018.25 The China interbank bond market (CIBM) was established on 6 June 1997. It is the market for securities trading and repurchasing for institutional investors (including commercial banks, rural credit unions, insurance companies and securities companies). The interbank bond market comprises the China Foreign Exchange Trading Center, the National Inter-bank Borrowing Center and the Central National Debt Registration and Settlement Company. The PBOC is the supervisory body of the CIBM.

Six major kinds of bonds are available in the inter-bank bond market:

  1. treasury bonds issued by China's Ministry of Finance;
  2. bonds issued by the PBOC;
  3. policy bank bonds issued by policy banks;
  4. financial bonds, including commercial bank bonds and non-bank financial institution bonds;
  5. corporate bonds issued by non-financial enterprises, commercial paper and medium-term notes;
  6. other types of bonds such as local government bonds issued by provincial or city governments, asset-backed securities and foreign bonds issued by foreign entities.26

Financial institutional issuers such as policy banks, commercial banks, finance companies and financial institutions with legal person status within the territory of China need to obtain approval from the PBOC to issue financial bonds. Foreign banks' branches allowed to engage in yuan business upon approval of the PBOC are also qualified to engage in debt trading in the CIBM.27

Foreign institutions incorporated outside of China are also permitted to issue bonds, also called Panda bonds, subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions and requirements. The government has further loosened the thresholds for foreign issuers by issuing new Panda bond measures in 2018.28 Currently, all types of issuers (except for financial institutions) are only required to apply for registration with the National Association of Financial Market Institutional Investors (NAFMII), a self-regulation body.29 On the other hand, overseas financial institutions are subject to stricter requirements when issuing Panda bonds, and have to meet demands set out in the new Panda bond measures.

III PRUDENTIAL REGULATION

i Relationship with the prudential regulator

All banks in the PRC shall strictly observe the rules of prudent operation, including risk management, internal control, capital adequacy, asset quality, loan loss provisioning, risk concentration, connected transactions and liquidity management of assets. The CBIRC would conduct off-site and on-site supervision of business operations and the risk profile of banks.

The CBIRC has established a rating system and an early-warning mechanism for the continuous supervision of banks. The CBIRC has the power to require banks to submit their balance sheets, profit statements, other financial accounting statements, statistical reports, and information concerning business operations and management, as well as audit reports prepared by certified public accountants. The CBIRC may also enter the premises of banks, interview staff, check and make copies of or seal up banks' documents and materials, and examine computer systems, as required for prudent supervision.

ii Management of banks

The CBIRC closely controls the appointment and removal of the directors and senior executives of banks. All directors and senior executives shall meet the requirements specified by the CBIRC and be approved by the CBIRC or its local counterparts before taking office. The chair of a board of directors and senior executives of a wholly foreign-owned bank shall not concurrently serve as senior executives in a foreign bank's branch that engages in the foreign exchange wholesale business.30

The CBIRC or its local counterparts would examine candidates' qualifications with regard to:

  1. their experience, knowledge and skills;
  2. their reputation, character, competence, soundness of judgement and diligence;
  3. whether they have a record of non-compliance with non-statutory codes or have disciplinary records;
  4. their involvement as a director in any companies wound up by the court; and
  5. their business record and financial soundness and strength.

In addition, the CBIRC may interview a person to be appointed before making its decision.

According to the Corporate Governance Guidance for Commercial Banks,31 the board of directors is ultimately responsible for the operation and management of a bank, including liquidity risk management.32 The CBIRC may, if necessary for performing its duties, hold supervisory consultations with the directors and senior executives of a bank, and ask them to explain important matters concerning its business operations and risk management. Directors and senior executives are responsible for the misconduct of banks, and in the event of the misconduct of a bank may receive a lifetime ban on working in the banking sector.

iii Regulatory capital and liquidity

Capital adequacy ratio

In implementing the Basel III capital regulations, the CBIRC has set up a uniform regulation system of the capital adequacy ratio of commercial banks.33 The requirements also apply to the branches of foreign banks in the PRC.

The minimum requirements for the capital adequacy ratio of a commercial bank include the following: the core Tier 1 capital adequacy ratio shall not be lower than 5 per cent; the Tier 1 capital adequacy ratio shall not be lower than 6 per cent; and the capital adequacy ratio shall not be lower than 8 per cent. Based on the minimum capital requirements, a commercial bank shall accrue reserve capital at 2.5 per cent of its risk-weighted assets fulfilled by the core Tier 1 capital. Under specific circumstances, a commercial bank shall also accrue countercyclical capital based on the minimum capital requirements and the reserve capital requirement. The countercyclical capital shall be zero to 2.5 per cent of its risk-weighted assets, and would be fulfilled by the core Tier 1 capital. A systemically important bank is required to accrue supplementary capital at 1 per cent of its risk-weighted assets fulfilled by the core Tier 1 capital. In addition, the CBIRC is entitled to specify more prudent capital requirements under the second pillar framework to ensure that the capital fully covers the risks.34

Unconsolidated and consolidated capital adequacy ratio

The CBIRC imposes capital requirements on commercials banks on both an unconsolidated and a consolidated basis. The calculation on an unconsolidated basis covers all domestic and overseas branches of a PRC-incorporated commercial bank, while the calculation on a consolidated basis covers a commercial bank itself as well as the financial institutions in which it directly or indirectly invests. Commercial banks and investee financial institutions shall jointly constitute a banking group.

A commercial bank shall report both its unconsolidated and consolidated capital adequacy ratios to the CBIRC. The consolidated capital adequacy ratio must be submitted once every six months, while the unconsolidated capital adequacy ratio shall be submitted on a quarterly basis.35

Composition of capitals

The core Tier 1 capital is the sum of paid-up capital or common shares, capital reserve, surplus reserve, general risk reserve, undistributed profits and a portion of the minority shareholders' capital. Additional Tier 1 capital of a commercial bank includes other Tier 1 capital instruments and their premiums as well as a portion of the minority shareholders' capital. The Tier 2 capital of a commercial bank is the sum of Tier 2 capital instruments and their premiums, reserve for loan loss in excess36 and a portion of the minority shareholders' capital.

The principal deductible items in calculating the capital adequacy ratio include:

  1. business goodwill;
  2. other intangible assets;37
  3. net deferred tax assets caused due to operating losses;
  4. shortfall in the loan loss reserve;
  5. proceeds from sales of asset securitisations;
  6. the net amount of pension assets with confirmed beneficiaries;
  7. shares held directly or indirectly in the commercial bank itself;
  8. cash flow reserves formed by hedging against items that are not measured at fair value in the balance sheet;38 and
  9. unrealised gains and losses caused by changes to the fair value of the liabilities of the commercial bank due to changes in its own credit risks.39

Liquidity risk

On 23 May 2018, the CBIRC issued the Measures for the Liquidity Risk Management of Commercial Banks (Liquidity Risk Management Measures) to replace its prior trial version.40 The Liquidity Risk Management Measures introduce three new indicators for liquidity risk supervision in response to Basel III reforms, namely, the net stable funding ratio (NSFR), the liquidity matching ratio and the adequacy ratio of high-quality liquid assets (HQLA), to join the original two indicators: liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) and liquidity ratio.

According to the Liquidity Risk Management Measures, a commercial bank with an asset size of 200 billion yuan and above shall continuously meet the minimum supervisory standards for LCR (at 100 per cent), NSFR (at 100 per cent), liquidity ratio (at 25 per cent) and liquidity matching ratio (at 100 per cent). A commercial bank with an asset size of less than 200 billion yuan shall continuously meet the minimum supervisory standards for adequacy ratio of HQLA (at 100 per cent), liquidity ratio (at 25 per cent) and liquidity matching ratio (at 100 per cent).41

iv Recovery and resolution

When a commercial bank has suffered or will possibly suffer a credit crisis, thereby seriously affecting the legitimate rights and interests of the depositors and other clients, the CBIRC may take over the bank or procure its restructuring.42 The purpose of a takeover is to protect the interests of depositors and to enable the bank to resume normal business through taking such measures as are necessary. The debtor–creditor relationship with regard to the taken-over bank would not change as a result of the takeover.43 The CBIRC should decide upon and arrange the implementation of such takeover.44 From the date of the takeover, the administrator executing the takeover shall exercise the powers of operation and management of the taken-over commercial bank.45 The maximum period of time for a takeover shall be two years.46 A takeover would terminate when the takeover period expires, or when the bank regains its capacity for normal business or is merged or declared bankrupt prior to the expiration of takeover period.47

If a bank violates the law or is not properly operated and managed, thereby seriously threatening the financial order and undermining the public interest unless it is closed, the CBIRC has the power to close and liquidate it. If a commercial bank is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, a PRC court may, after obtaining the consent of the CBIRC, declare it bankrupt and arrange for liquidation with the involvement of the CBIRC. When liquidation is carried out for a bankrupt commercial bank, payment of the principal and interests of the savings deposits of individuals shall be given priority after the liquidation expenses, wages owed to employees and labour insurance premiums have been paid.48

To date, two banks (Hainan Development Bank and the credit cooperatives of Shang Village in Hebei Province) have been approved to be declared bankrupt when they were definitively unable to pay their debts. However, in the end the government took over the debts to avoid losses of non-professional depositors.49 In May 2015, the State Council issued the Deposit Insurance Regulation, which prescribes that deposit insurance is subject to a coverage limit of up to 500,000 yuan.50 This means there will be no more unlimited guarantee from the government for larger debts. The bankruptcy of banks will be likely implemented following the Western market practice.

IV CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

i Conduct of business rules

One key element of PRC banking regulations is that all banking products or services fall within the regulatory framework. Prudential regulation is not only applied to banking institutions, but also to their banking business products and services. Apart from deposit and loan services, which are generally regulated under the Banking Regulation Law (2006) and the Commercial Banks Law (2015), wealth management, structured deposits and national debts are also ruled by special regulations. The Wealth Management Measures outline a clear structure for a bank to avoid shadow banking and to control a concentration risk of capital.51 According to the Measures, commercial banks issuing structured deposits must have the required derivative product trading business qualifications, and must comply with the CBIRC's regulation of derivatives.52

Overall, the CBIRC takes a broad and rigorous approach to the regulation of banking products and services. As mentioned above, approval of core banking products must be sought from the CBIRC on a case-by-case basis.

ii Potential sources of liability

The potential sources of liability for banks include but are not limited to the Banking Regulation Law (2006) and the Commercial Banks Law (2015). The Criminal Law (2018) and the Measures for Prohibiting illegal Financial activities (1999) regulate the crime of undermining the orderliness of financial management and the crime of financial fraud.53

The Anti-Money Laundering Law (2007) and the Provisions on Anti-money Laundering of Financial Institutions (2007) require financial institutions to establish and continually improve a system indentifying clients' identities and information, and a reporting system for large-sum transactions and doubtful transactions. Organs and functionaries of banks are also obliged to submit a report on large-sum transactions or doubtful transactions.54

The administrative punishments in the Administrative Punishment Measures of the then-CBRC (2015) will be triggered when there are violations of the banking supervision provisions. Banks may face warnings, fines, the confiscation of illegal gains and other punishments when they violate the Foreign Exchange Administrative Regulations on Crimes of Defrauding through, inter alia, illegal arbitrage, evasion, or illegal purchases or sales of foreign exchange.

As the Chinese banking regulator, the CBIRC has tightened its reins, and a regulatory storm has been seen since 2017. In 2017, 3,452 fine tickets were issued, covering 1,877 financial institutions and 1,547 responsible persons and amounting to nearly 3 billion yuan, nearly three times more than financial institutions were fined in 2016.55

iii Banking confidentiality

As banks hold large online databases of personal information, data protection has been a major issue in the banking sector. Under the basic principle of customer information confidentiality, commercial banks should keep the secrecy of depositors when handling individual saving deposits. Commercial banks have the right to refuse any individual's or entity's inquiries about private data, and not to freeze, deduct or transfer funds an individual's savings deposits, unless this is otherwise prescribed by law.56

All transactions and information recordings of any bank cards shall be checked only with a password, and a card-issuing bank shall explain the importance of password and the responsibility for their loss to the cardholders in the relevant articles of association on bank cards or the directions for use.57

According to the Cybersecurity Law (2017), banks should require clients to provide their true identity, and check that information by sending a code via a message before conducting the relevant services. Portable platforms like telephone banking and online banking apps are under even more strict checks regarding fingerprints and facial identifiers.

The Cybersecurity Law also provides that making disaster recovery backups of important systems and databases, establishing emergency response plans for cybersecurity incidents and organising drills on a periodical basis could be helpful to protect confidential information.58

V FUNDING

Financial institutions, including banks, may raise funds through equity injections, loans, deposit taking, bond issuance, financial leases and obtaining refinancing from the PBOC.59 A branch may raise funds through an allocation of operational capital by its parent bank, loans and deposit taking (if allowed under its business scope). The capital instruments issued by a commercial bank shall meet the eligibility criteria specified in Appendix 1 of the Capitals Measures.

Customer deposits are the most important source of funding for retail banks in the PRC. Chinese people's propensity to save has been the main cause for keeping customer deposit rates at a high level. Banks taking deposit are required to set aside a yuan deposit reserve60 or a foreign currency deposit reserve,61 or both, and in each case deposit the same with the PBOC. Under the Deposit Insurance Regulation,62 all deposit-taking financial institutions incorporated in the PRC are required to participate in the deposit insurance scheme. The deposit insurance scheme protects depositors from the loss of their funds, and eliminate the possibility of a run on a bank if rumours spread about that particular bank. However, the Deposit Insurance Regulation excludes its application to branches of foreign banks, and is silent as to whether a branch is able to participate in this deposit insurance system on a voluntary basis. In practice, this is not feasible at the moment.

In terms of loans, a bank may borrow loans through the PRC inter-bank lending market in accordance with the terms of the Administrative Rules on Inter-bank Lending.63 A bank may also borrow foreign debts (including foreign loans, foreign inter-bank lending, foreign inter-bank deposits, dealings between overseas affiliated banks or affiliates, deposits by non-residents and other forms of foreign debts). Proceeds received under foreign debts cannot be used for the settlement of exchange (i.e., conversion into yuan), to pay debts or interest, or to purchase other foreign exchange.64 As mentioned above, banks can also raise funds through issuing bonds in the inter-bank bond market under the supervision of the PBOC.65 In October 2018, the PBOC announced that it will introduce the tripartite repurchase transaction into the inter-bank bond market, which is a common type of bond transaction in developed markets but unknown in the Chinese market.

VI CONTROL OF BANKS AND TRANSFERS OF BANKING BUSINESS

i Control regime

In January 2018, the CBIRC issued the Interim Measures for the Equity Management of Commercial Banks, which aims at persons who hold more than 5 per cent of the total capital of a bank, or less than 5 per cent of the total capital but having a significant impact on the business management of a bank. One focal point is the transparency between shareholders and their holding companies or other concerned persons, and another the origins of the purchasing funds. With regard to the procedure, an investor intending to initially or accumulatively hold more than 5 per cent of the shares of a bank shall file an application with the CBIRC in advance, while an investor holding from 1 to 5 per cent shall, within 10 working days of the date of obtaining the corresponding equities, report to the CBIRC. The shareholding ratio of a shareholder and its affiliates and the persons acting in concert will be calculated on a consolidated basis.

The same investor and its affiliates and persons acting in concert shall not purchase shares of more than two commercial banks as a major shareholder or control more than one commercial bank, unless their purchase is authorised by the State Council. A major shareholder of a commercial bank shall not transfer any equity it holds within five years from the date of obtaining the equity. In addition, there are some general principles about preventing conflicts of interest.

A detailed business plan is neither required in connection with an application for regulatory approval of an acquisition of a significant stake in a commercial bank, nor where the proposed acquisition is of a significant stake in a holding company of a commercial bank.

The Interim Measures apply to all the kinds of commercial banks in China, including state-owned, postal savings, joint-stock and city commercial banks, and in principle also to foreign-funded banks. For the last, there are some further special demands on the capital amounts of foreign investors.

ii Transfer of banking business

Commercial banks cannot transfer their deposits without the assent of their clients, for they are the creditors. On the other side, and in line with the general regulations of the Contract Law, a bank as creditor should be able to transfer its loan arrangements to another bank without the agreement of its clients as debtors.66 However, according to a notice of the CBRC on the transferring of credit assets (December 2010), the consent of clients is essential for this kind of business, unless it is agreed in advance in the loan contracts. If there is a guarantor for the loan, the guarantor must be consulted about the transfer. When the guarantor does not agree to it, the transfer and the debtor (client) need to look for a new guarantor or a new mortgage.67

In addition, when the transferee is a non-financial institution, the transferring of loan arrangements also needs the approval of the administrative authorities.68 All transferring business must be reported to the regulatory authorities within 30 days.69

VII THE YEAR IN REVIEW

i Creation of the CBIRC

The CBIRC was founded amid the government's institutional reform from a separate sector regulation approach toward an integrated regulation approach, with an aim to improve the efficiency of financial regulation and stamp out regulatory arbitrage. However, not many changes in regulatory approach have been witnessed since the CBIRC came into operation in April 2018, as the official team in charge of banking regulation remains unchanged. It remains to be seen what real impact will be brought about by the merger of the CBRC and CIRC.

ii Further opening up to foreign investment in the banking industry

One notable development in the banking industry in 2018 was the further opening up of the banking industry to foreign investment. Several measures have been taken:

  1. the CBIRC issued the Notice on Foreign-funded Banks70 in April, which loosens the licensing requirements for foreign-funded banks, including allowing foreign-funded banks to carry out agency issuance, agency redemption and the underwriting of government bonds without obtaining licensing from the CBIRC;
  2. several restrictions on foreign investment in Chinese-funded banks were lifted in July;71 and
  3. the Measures for the Administration of Equity Investment by Overseas Financial Institutions in Chinese-Funded Financial Institutions were repealed by the CBIRC in August, marking a further step in levelling the playground for domestic and foreign competitors.

iii Implementation of the revisions of Basel III 2017 in China

China has not yet taken steps in direct response to the revisions of Basel III 2017 (Revisions), as the newly revised standards will not come into force until 2022. However, some regulations issued by the Chinese regulator in the past few years, such as those regarding the leverage ratios,72 liquidity risks73 and large exposure,74 concentrated on some of the shared focuses under the Revisions.

Commercial banks in China still need to accept the standardised measurement approach under Basel III, which to date is not generally used in practice in China. According to the renewed framework, many banks in China should increase their capital. It can be expected that some more detailed regulations concerning the whole banking regulatory system of China in implementing the Revisions will be released in the near future.

iv Three major tasks of the Financial Stability Committee

On 14 July 2017, President XI outlined three major tasks at a national financial work conference: serving the real economy, forestalling financial risks and deepening financial reforms,75 which form the guidelines for the central government's banking regulation.

Following this instruction, the State Council established on 8 November 2017 the Financial Stability Committee, which aims to ensure financial stability in China. Its duties include coordinating financial reform; development and regulatory activities; unifying monetary, financial, fiscal and industrial policies; and analysing international and domestic financial situations to prevent international and systematic financial risks.76

v New regulations of bad or non-performing loans

According to a notice of the then-CBRC,77 the loan loss provision coverage ratio has been lowered from 150 per cent, to between 120 and 150 per cent, and the loan loss provision ratio requirement has been lowered from 2.5 per cent, to between 1.5 and 2.5 per cent. Lowering these two ratios could release more net capital of commercial banks, which would encourage banks to speed up their disposal of current non-performing loans while allowing banks to have more funds to support the real economy.

vi New regulations of securities and futures

On 22 October 2018, the CSRC issued new measures regarding securities and futures78 that establish more comprehensive regulations for the private equity industry, including regarding custodian duties, the risks of administrators, improvements in system costs and the promotion of responsible behaviour. For example, the Securities and Futures Business Institutions Measure has for the first time specifically clarified the obligations of custodian institutions, such as supervising the investment operations of managers, refusing enforcement after finding that managers' investment or liquidation orders violate the law and administrative regulations.79

VIII OUTLOOK and CONCLUSIONS

The outlook for the PRC banking system remains positive, as the industry continues to grow robustly and the country further opens up to the foreign and international market. We anticipate a more level playing field for domestic and foreign banks, and more opportunities for foreign banks to develop in the PRC. We also anticipate that the regulatory style will be loose in general but tight in key areas.


Footnotes

1 Shengzhe Wang is counsel and Fugui Tan is an associate at Hogan Lovells International LLP.

2 For the purposes of this review, the PRC excludes Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

3 http://www.gov.cn/centralbank/ accessed on 11 February 2019.

4 For a good overview of the history of banking reform in China see chapter 2, 'the Evolution of the Banking Sector in China', 2017, C Jiang and S Yao, Chinese Banking Reform, The Nottingham China Policy Institute Series, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-63925-3_2.

5 http://www.icbc.com.cn/ICBC/en/default.htm accessed on 11 February 2019.

6 http://www.ccb.com/en/home/indexv3.html accessed on 11 February 2019.

7 http://www.boc.cn/en/index.html accessed on 11 February 2019.

8 http://www.abchina.com/en/ accessed on 11 February 2019.

10 http://www.psbc.com/en/index.html accessed on 18 February 2019.

11 List of Banking Financial Institutions issued by CBIRC on 11 February 2019.

12 http://www.citicbank.com/en/ accessed on 11 February 2019.

14 http://en.cmbc.com.cn/ accessed on 11 February 2019.

15 List of banking financial institutions issued by CBIRC on 11 February 2019.

16 The policy banks are the Agricultural Development Bank of China and the Export-Import Bank of China, each of which is dedicated to a specific lending purpose. The China Development Bank, as the financial institution for the development, is not only committed to policy financial programmes but also to commercial financial services.

17 By the end of 2018 there were 1,427 rural commercial banks and 30 rural cooperative banks in China (statistics from the official list of banking financial institutions, issued by CBIRC on 11 February 2019).

18 By the end of 2018 there are 41 foreign-funded banks in China (statistics from the official list of banking financial institutions, issued by CBIRC on 11 February 2019).

20 The CBIRC was founded in April 2018 to replace the CBRC.

22 Article 11 of Chinese-funded Commercial Banks Measures, effective from 17 August 2018.

23 First promulgated by the then-CBRC on 5 June 2015 and last revised by the CBIRC, effective from 17 August 2018.

24 Ibid.

25 https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-04/overseas-investors-boost-china-bond-holdings-by-most-since-june accessed on 11 February 2019.

26 China's Bond Market https://csopasset.us/markets/bond-market accessed on 11 February 2019.

27 Measures for the Administration of Bond Transactions in the National Inter-Bank Bond Market (Bond Transaction Measure) (PBOC), effective from 30 April 2000.

28 The Administration of Issuance of Overseas Institutional Bonds in the National Inter-bank Bond Market Interim Measures, effective from 8 September 2018.

29 The NAFMII is a self-regulation organisation under the approval of the State Council of China. Members include policy banks, commercial banks, credit cooperative banks, insurance companies, securities houses, fund management companies, trust and investment companies, finance companies affiliated with corporations, credit rating agencies, accounting firms and companies in non-financial sectors. NAFMII aims to propel the development of the Chinese over-the-counter financial market, which is composed of the inter-bank bond market, inter-bank lending market, foreign exchange market, commercial paper market and gold market.

30 Measures for the Administration of the Office-holding Qualifications of the Directors (Council Members) and Senior Managers of Banking Financial Institutions (CBRC), effective from 18 December 2013.

31 Article 19 of the Corporate Governance Guidance for Commercial Banks (CBRC), effective from 19 July 2013.

32 Article 8 of the Measures for the Liquidity Risk Management of Commercial Banks (CBIRC), effective from 1 July 2018.

33 Administration Measures for the Capitals of Commercial Banks (for Trial Implementation) (CBRC), effective from 1 January 2013.

34 Article 26 of the Administration Measures for the Capitals of Commercial Banks (for Trial Implementation) (CBRC), effective from 1 January 2013.

35 Article 148 of the Administration Measures for the Capitals of Commercial Banks (for Trial Implementation) (CBRC), effective from 1 January 2013.

36 It will be up to 1.25 per cent of the risk-weighted assets for credit risks if adopting the weighting approach; it will be up to 0.6 per cent if adopting the internal ratings-based approach.

37 The land-use rights are not included.

38 Positive cash flow reserve shall be deducted, while a negative one shall be reversed.

39 Article 32 of the Administration Measures for the Capitals of Commercial Banks (for Trial Implementation) (CBRC), effective from 1 January 2013.

40 Measures for the Liquidity Risk Management of Commercial Banks (CBIRC), effective from 1 July 2018.

41 In avoidance of adverse impact brought about by a sudden shift, the Liquidity Risk Management Measures have set a schedule buffer for the transition. First, the LCR of a commercial bank shall reach 100 per cent by the end of 2018. During the transitional period, it shall not be lower than 90 per cent. Second, a commercial bank shall implement the supervisory requirements for the liquidity matching ratio from 1 January 2020. Before 2020, the liquidity matching ratio is the monitoring indicator. Third, the adequacy ratio of HQLA of a commercial bank shall reach 100 per cent by the end of June 2019. During the transitional period, it shall reach 80 per cent by the end of 2018.

42 Article 38 and Article 64 of the Commercial Banks Law.

43 Article 64 of the Commercial Banks Law.

44 Article 65 of the Commercial Banks Law.

45 Article 66 of the Commercial Banks Law.

46 Article 67 of the Commercial Banks Law.

47 Article 68 of the Commercial Banks Law.

48 Article 71 of the Commercial Banks Law.

49 The debts of the Hainan Development Bank were taken over by the ICBC under the instruction of the PBOC (announcement of the PBOC from 21 June 1998): https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%B5%B7%E5%8D%97%E5%8F%91%E5%B1%95%E9%93%B6%E8%A1%8C accessed on 11 February 2019; the debts of the credit cooperatives of Shang Village were paid through the funding of the Union of credit cooperatives of Suning County of Hebei Province: http://www.chinanews.com/cj/2012/08-19/4117014.shtml accessed on 11 February 2019.

50 Article 5 of Deposit Insurance Rule (The State Council), effective from 1 May 2015.

51 Measures for the Supervision and Administration of the Wealth Management Business of Commercial Banks (CBIRC), effective from 26 September 2018.

52 Article 75 of the Wealth Management Measures.

53 Part 2 Chapter 3 Sections 4 and 5 of the Criminal Law of PRC; Measures for the Prohibition of illegal Financial institutions and illegal Financial Business activities (The State Council), effective from 13 July 1998.

54 Chapter 1 of Anti-Money Laundering Law (2007).

56 Articles 29 and 30 of the Commercial Banks Law.

57 Notice on Issuing the Measures for the Administration of Bank Card Business (PBOC), effective from 1 March 1999.

58 Article 34 of the Cybersecurity Law, effective from 1 June 2017.

59 Financial Rules for Financial Enterprises was promulgated by the Ministry of Finance, effective from 1 January 2007.

60 Article 32 of the Commercial Banks Law and Article 39 of Foreign-Funded Banks Regulation.

61 Article 3 of the Regulations on Foreign Currency Reserve of Financial Institution (PBOC), effective from 29 October 2004.

62 Regulations on Deposit Insurance (The State Council), effective from 1 May 2015.

63 Administrative Rules on Inter-bank Lending was promulgated by PBOC from 7 March 2007.

64 Administrative Rules of Foreign Debts Raised by Foreign Invested Bank in the PRC was promulgated by National Development and Reform Committee (NDRC), PBOC and CBRC, effective from 26 June 2004.

65 Measures for the Issue and Trading of Corporate Bonds, effective from 15 January 2015.

66 Article 80 of the Contract Law.

67 Notice on the transferring of credit assets (CBRC), effective from 3 December 2010.

68 Reply on the problems of transferring of loan arrangements (PBOC), effective from 30 July 2001.

69 Notice on the transferring of credit assets (CBRC), effective from 3 December 2010.

70 Notice on Further Loosening Market Access Restrictions on Foreign-funded Banks (CBIRC), effective from 27 April 2018.

71 Under the Negative List of the Catalogue of Industries for Guiding Foreign Investment (2017 Revision), a single overseas financial institution and the affiliated parties under its control or joint control are allowed to invest in not more than 20 per cent of the shares of a single Chinese-funded commercial bank as promoters or strategic investors; multiple overseas financial institutions and the affiliated parties under their control or joint control are only allowed to invest in a total of not more than 25 per cent of the shares of a single Chinese-funded commercial bank as promoters or strategic investors; overseas financial institutions investing in rural small and medium-sized financial institutions shall be banking financial institutions; and overseas investors that establish branches of foreign banks, wholly foreign-funded banks or banks in the form of Sino-foreign equity joint ventures, and their sole or controlling shareholders, shall be overseas commercial banks, while their non-controlling shareholders may be overseas financial institutions. These restrictions were all removed from the 2018 version of the Negative List issued by the NDRC and Ministry of Commerce, effective from 28 July 2018.

72 Measures for the Administration of the Leverage Ratio of Commercial Banks (CBRC), effective on 30 January 2015.

73 Measures for the Liquidity Risk Management of Commercial Banks (for Trial Implementation) (CBIRC), effective from 1 July 2018.

74 Measures for the Administration of the Large Exposures of Commercial Banks (CBIRC), effective from 1 July 2018.

76 China establishes financial stability and development committee: http://english.gov.cn/news/top_news/2017/11/08/content_281475936107760.htm accessed on 11 February 2019.

77 Notice on Adjusting the Supervision Requirements for Commercial Bank Loan Loss Preparation (CBRC), effective from 6 March 2019.

78 Measures for the Administration of the Privately Offered Asset Management Business of Securities and Futures Business Institutions, effective from 28 July 2018.

79 Article 13 of the Securities and Futures Business Institutions Measure.