I INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMIGRATION FRAMEWORK
Brazil is a country with a population of approximately 209 million.2 Immigration has been essential for the development of Brazil and it is still considered a key factor for the future of the country.
Recognising the importance of immigration, migration legislation has been approved recently, with new policies aimed at making the process for foreigners coming to Brazil easier and faster. In the past few years, new procedures have been introduced to expedite and facilitate the granting of certain work visas, and also to grant immediate residence status in cases both where families were being reunited and under the Mercosur Agreement. Furthermore, Brazilian Law No. 13.445 (the New Migration Law) was approved in May 2017.
The fact that immigration into countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom is restricted represents an opportunity for Brazil, which, because of its current rules, not only allows, but also, in fact, encourages foreigners to study and work in the country.
While other countries around the globe are restricting the entrance of refugees, Brazil’s New Migration Law and its implementing decree (Decree 9.199/2017) are primarily focused on the importance of humanitarian rights for foreigners and allowing refugees to travel to Brazil and apply for resident status while in the country.
i Legislation and policy3
On 4 August, 2016, Brazil joined the Hague Apostille Convention4 to expedite and simplify the legalisation of documents between Convention member countries.
On 21 November 2017, the New Migration Law and Decree No. 9.199, which establish rules for the entry and residence of immigrants in Brazil, entered into effect.
Under the New Migration Law, it is possible for someone in Brazil with irregular immigration status to apply for a residence permit if, for example, the individual has a job offer. This represents an option for immigrants to regularise their immigration status, even though no amnesty was contemplated in the law, provided that they pay the fine for an irregular stay – 100 reais per day, up to a maximum of 10,000 reais.
In addition, under the New Migration Law there is no ‘permanent visa’: the options are either a temporary visa, issued for a certain period (which varies depending on the type of visa), or a residence permit, for either a definite or an indefinite term, depending which basis it is granted on; the residence permit ceases once the establishing conditions no longer exist.
Another relevant change is that foreigners with a university degree will be able to apply for a work visa, irrespective of whether a company sponsors the visa. The rules governing this option have still to be published in a specific normative resolution.
In addition, the new legislation introduced the category of visitor visas, which may be issued electronically for nationals of some countries. These e-visas are currently issued for Australian, Japanese, Canadian and US citizens, for tourism and business purposes, and for certain work activities, including consulting, auditing, offshore work and artistic and sports activities, for multiple entries, valid for a maximum period of two years but always limited to the period of validity of the visa holder’s passport. It permits a maximum stay of 90 days in a single trip, but limited to a maximum stay of 180 days per year. As to the activities that are of a work nature, the term cannot be for more than 90 days.
In view of the Brazilian authorities’ concern for human rights, two new categories of visas have been created: humanitarian and health purposes (visas were already granted for those reasons, but they are now distinct visa categories listed in the law).
The CNI continues in the same role under the New Migration Law. To date, the following normative resolutions and inter-ministerial ordinances have been issued by the Ministry of Justice in relation to work visas and residence permits.
Normative resolutions issued by the CNI
- No. 1/17 of 1 December – general procedures for work permit applications;
- No. 2/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes with employment contracts in Brazil;
- No. 3/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, for the rendering of technical assistance services;
- No. 4/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, for transfer of technology;
- No. 5/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil for a seaman who works on board a cruise ship navigating the Brazilian coast;
- No. 6/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil to act as a seaman on board a foreign-flag vessel or platform;
- No. 7/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil to provide services or technical assistance to the Brazilian government;
- No. 8/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil under an international cooperation agreement;
- No. 9/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, to represent, in Brazil, a financial institution or similar institution based abroad;
- No. 10/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, to represent a non-profit private legal entity;
- No. 11/17 of 1 December – temporary visas, concomitant authorisations and residence permits for administrators, managers, officers or executives with management powers, to represent a civil or commercial society, group or economic conglomerate or legal entity, as well as concomitant authorisations for members of the board of directors;
- No. 12/17 of 1 December – temporary visas and residence permits for the exercise of a position, function or assignment, without an employment relationship, for an indefinite term, because specific federal legislation requires residence in Brazil;
- No. 13/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for individual foreign investors;
- No. 14/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for religious activities;
- No. 15/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for the provision of voluntary services to a non-profit public or private entity or an organisation linked with a foreign government;
- No. 16/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for performing artistic or sports activities, with a fixed-term contract, without an employment relationship with an individual or legal entity based in Brazil;
- No. 17/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, to perform an activity as a correspondent for a foreign newspaper, magazine, radio, television or news agency;
- No. 18/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, for an immigrant linked to an economic group whose headquarters is in Brazil, with a view to training and assimilating the business culture and management methodology of the company concerned;
- No. 19/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil, to receive professional training from a Brazilian subsidiary, branch or headquarters;
- No. 20/17 of 12 December, as amended by No. 27/18 of 10 April – temporary visas and residence permits for research, teaching or academic extension for a scientist, researcher or teacher, and for foreign professionals who intend to come to the country, with a term of stay of more than 90 days;
- No. 21/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes with an employment contract in Brazil for a professional athlete, as defined by law;
- No. 22/17 of 12 December – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes without an employment relationship in Brazil to act as a seaman on board a foreign fishing vessel leased by a Brazilian company;
- No. 23/17 of 12 December – special cases for the granting of residence permits related to labour-related issues for analysis by the National Council of Immigration;
- No. 24/18 of 20 February – temporary visas and residence permits for research, teaching or academic extension with an employment contract in Brazil;
- No. 25/18 of 20 February – temporary visas and residence permits for minors between the ages of 14 and 18 for performing sports activities; and
- No. 26/18 of 2 April – temporary visas and residence permits for work purposes for professional internship or professional exchange programmes.
Inter-ministerial Ordinances issued by the Ministry of Justice
- No. 3 of 27 February 2018 – procedure to be followed in relation to the processing of applications for residence permits, registration and issuance of the National Migration Registry Card (CRNM); specifies the documentation necessary for examining applications and defines the procedures for registering residence permits granted to refugees, stateless persons and asylum seekers;
- No. 4 of 27 February 2018 – procedure for granting a residence permit for cases not expressly provided for in the New Migration Law and Decree 9.199/2017;
- No. 5 of 27 February 2018 – procedure for recognising the status of statelessness and the resulting facilitated naturalisation;
- No. 217 of 27 February 2018 – administrative proceedings relating to requests for extradition and precautionary arrest within the Ministry of Justice;
- No. 218 of 27 February 2018 – procedure for assessing the condition of economic hardship for the purposes of exemption from fees for obtaining documents for regularisation of immigration status of immigrants and for payment of fines;
- No. 6 of 12 March 2018 –procedure for the loss and cancellation of a residence permit;
- No. 7 of 13 March 2018 – temporary visa and residence permit for study purposes;
- No. 8 of 13 March 2018 – temporary visa and residence permit for medical treatment;
- No. 9 of 13 March 2018 – residence permit for immigrants in the Brazilian territory who are nationals of a border state in which the MERCOSUR Residence Agreement is not in force;
- No. 10 of 6 April 2018 – procedures for temporary visa and residence permit granted for humanitarian reasons to nationals of any stateless people resident in Haiti; and
- No 11 of 3 May 2018 – procedures for requests for naturalisation, equal rights, loss, reacquisition of Brazilian citizenship and revocation of the decision of loss of Brazilian citizenship.
ii The immigration authorities
The main authorities responsible for immigration in Brazil are the Ministry of Labour and Employment,5 the Ministry of Justice, the new Ministry of Public Security6 and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.7 Each of these ministries has specific structures regarding immigration. A system is being developed for the interconnection of all the immigration authorities.
Ministry of Labour and Employment
The Ministry of Labour and Employment is the government body structured to regulate and assess, through the National Immigration Council (CNI) and the General Immigration Coordination Office (CGIg), the immigration processes and procedures for foreigners to work, study and reside in Brazil.
The CNI is composed of appointed representatives from the Ministries of Labour, Justice and Public Security, Foreign Affairs, Agriculture, Science and Technology, Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, Health and Education, as well as representatives of companies and trade unions. It is also responsible for:
- formulating immigration policies and coordinating and directing immigration actions;
- regularly assessing the need for qualified foreign workers in relation to granting entry;
- undertaking research on immigration-related problems;
- issuing rules for immigrant selection aimed at providing specialist workers for the various sectors of the economy;
- collecting resources for specific sectors;
- clarifying and resolving undefined areas in immigration-related cases;
- providing opinions on changes to immigration law proposed by any sector of the executive branch; and
- creating internal control regulations, subject to the approval of the Minister of Labour.
The CGIg is responsible for the assessment and granting of requests for advance residence authorisations for the issuance of temporary visas; and for residence permits for foreigners coming to work in Brazil and for training and internship purposes.
Ministry of Justice
The Ministry of Justice is the governmental body that regulates, through the following divisions, nationality, immigration and other issues related to foreigners in general in Brazil.
The main duties of the National Justice Secretariat are to coordinate, in partnership with other administrative bodies:
- national migration policy, particularly in relation to nationality, citizenship, the judicial regime and migration;
- national refugee policy; and
- national policy on combating human trafficking.
This division authorises the entry of foreign citizens at the port of entry into Brazil and extensions of stay while in Brazil.
Federal Police agents have discretionary power to allow the entry of foreigners into the country irrespective of whether they hold appropriate visas. Registration with the Federal Police and entry on the CRNM system for those who carry temporary visas is mandatory within 90 days of the date of arrival, and this must be done within 30 days of the date of publication of the granting of the residence permit by those who have their residence permit granted in Brazil. In some Brazilian states, failure to register within this period will preclude the foreigner from re-entering the country and a new visa-request process would be required. Visitor visas are exempt from this rule. In the event of failure to register within the required deadline, the foreigner will be subject to a fine in the amount of 100 reais.
The National Committee for Refugees (CONARE) is the collective body that brings together representative segments of the public sector, civil society and the United Nations, with the aim of examining applications for recognition of refugee status; deciding on terminations of refugee status, ex officio or at the request of the competent authorities; issuing declarations of loss of refugee status; guiding and coordinating the actions needed for effective protection, assistance, local integration and legal support for refugees, with the participation of ministries and institutions within CONARE; and of approving normative instructions that enable the implementation of refugee-related legislation.
The main duties of the Department of Migration, which is part of the National Justice Secretariat, are to process, provide opinions on and address issues regarding nationality, naturalisation and the judicial regime in relation to foreigners. It is also the body responsible for matters related to coercive measures of expulsion, extradition and deportation; for instructing processes for the transfer of prisoners and recognition of refugee status and political asylum; and for providing support to CONARE.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (also known as Itamaraty) is the body responsible for foreign policy and Brazilian international relations at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. It advises the President on the formulation of Brazilian foreign policy and implementation of diplomatic relations with foreign states and international organisations. Brazil has more than 220 representative institutions abroad, including embassies, consulates general, consulates, vice consulates, diplomatic missions or delegations, and offices. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through its embassies and consulates, is responsible for the issuance of visas to foreigners coming to Brazil.
iii Exemptions and favoured industries
In Brazil, there are no specific legal or favoured industries for immigration purposes. It is, however, mandatory, depending on the type of visa, to respect the two-thirds rule (at least two employees out of every three must be Brazilian),8 or have the candidates transfer technology or know-how, or train Brazilian-registered employees, so all industries that comply with these requirements may be seen as favoured industries: the more foreign manpower that can come to Brazil to transfer know-how and train the Brazilian labour force, the better.
There is, however, an exemption for the programme called ‘Mais Médicos’ (More Doctors),9 a federal government scheme to increase the number of doctors in specific regions of Brazil. Through an international medical exchange programme that allows foreign physicians to work in Brazil, the government strives to cover the lack of Brazilian professionals willing to work in regions in which there are shortages. The rules of the More Doctors programme for Brazil are in accordance with those of the World Health Organization.
II INTERNATIONAL TREATY OBLIGATIONS
Decree No. 6.975 of 7 October 2009 regulates the Agreement on Residency for Nationals of the States who are a party to the Mercosur Agreement.
The Mercosur Agreement applies to citizens of Mercosur signatory (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and associated countries (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru).
On the basis of the Mercosur Agreement, nationals of these countries may apply for temporary residence in any of the other member countries, and are entitled to work under the same conditions as a national; after two years they may apply to change their temporary residence status to one of an indefinite term.
The application for temporary residence can be made either abroad or in Brazil, even if the candidate is in Brazil in an irregular situation, in which case he or she does not have to pay a fine and is not subject to any other administrative sanctions.
ii Schengen Agreement
Decree No. 7.821 of 5 October 2012 promulgated the Agreement between the Federative Republic of Brazil and the European Union on Short-Term Visa Waiver for Common Passports, signed in Brussels on 8 November 2010, and is applicable to individuals travelling for tourism or business purposes.
III THE YEAR IN REVIEW
Brazil is now recovering slowly from its political and economic crisis. Regardless of his unpopularity, President Michel Temer has played a major role in making labour and immigration laws for outsourcing and hiring of employees more flexible.
Foreign investors, such as the Chinese, are seeking business opportunities in the country. The oil and gas licensing round held in 2017 was truly successful and the oil and gas sector is expected to recover in the coming years. In October 2018, there will be a presidential election for the 2019–2022 term.
IV EMPLOYER SPONSORSHIP
i Advance residence authorisations and residence permits
Except in the case of a visitor’s visa, for all work-related visas it is necessary to obtain an advance residence authorisation from the CGIg in Brazil; residence permit applications are also assessed directly by the CGIg, and not by the Ministry of Justice as used to be the case.
The timescale for approval and publication in the Official Gazette of an advance residence authorisation for the issuance of a temporary visa or granting of a residence permit in Brazil is 30 calendar days. In the event of a refusal, it is possible to file an appeal.
After approval and publication of the advance residence authorisation for the temporary visa, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sends, within approximately five business days, an authorisation for the consulate to process the visa application. The timescale for the granting of the visa varies, depending on the workload of the consulate, from three business days to two months. Upon arrival in Brazil, the visa holder has 90 days to register with the Federal Police.
The timescale for the processing of the 180-day visa is an exception, and the CGIg completes the assessment for this application within five business days or, in the case of emergencies, two business days, and the consulates are advised immediately of the approval of the advance residence authorisation.
Upon approval and publication of the residence permit authorisation, the foreigner has 30 days from the date of publication to register with the Federal Police.
The CNI normative resolutions (NRs) stipulate the requirements for the granting of advance residence authorisations for the issuance of temporary visas and residence permits. The most common work visas and residence permits are as follows.
Officers’ work visas and residence permits
Officers’ work visas and residence permits (NR No. 11/17) are appropriate for foreign administrators, managers, officers, directors and executives with managerial powers who come to Brazil as representatives of companies, commercial groups or economic conglomerates.
The company that intends to appoint a foreign national to a managerial position must prove (1) an investment equal to or higher than the equivalent, in foreign currency, of 600,000 reais for each appointed foreign manager, or (2) an investment equal to or higher than the equivalent, in foreign currency, of 150,000 reais, for each appointed foreign manager, and generate a minimum of 10 new jobs during the first two years after the establishment of the firm or the arrival of the foreign national.
Although the residence permit is for an indefinite term, the migrant’s CRNM will be valid for up to nine years. However, at the moment the Federal Police is still issuing CRNMs with an initial validity of five years, even though they should be for nine years, and is is only issuing them for nine years upon renewal. Migrants will only be able to renew the identity card if they continue to exercise the function in the designated company for which the visa or residence permit was approved.
Work visas and residence permits based on employment contracts
Under NR No. 2/17, Brazilian companies may require a prior residence authorisation for the issuance of a temporary visa or a residence permit under an employment contract in the event that two-thirds of the employees of the Brazilian company are Brazilian citizens and that two-thirds of the total of the company’s payroll is paid to Brazilian employees.
For purposes of this two-thirds rule,10 foreign nationals who have been living in Brazil for 10 years or more and are married to Brazilian citizens or have Brazilian children, Portuguese citizens, irrespective of any other individual situation, and nationals of the Mercosur countries who live in Brazil with residence granted under the Agreement, are treated as Brazilians.
Foreign nationals applying for residence must prove that they have education, qualification and professional experience compatible with the role to be exercised in Brazil. Education and qualification are proven by means of diplomas or certificates, and for people who do not have a college or technical diploma, a minimum of 12 years’ study must be proven. In the case of candidates whose artistic or cultural activities do not depend on formal education, a minimum experience of three years in the exercise of the profession must be proven. The documents must be apostilled at the jurisdiction in which the documents were issued and translated in Brazil by a sworn public translator.
Professional experience is proven by means of a statement from the company for which the candidate worked, showing a minimum experience of four years for medium-level candidates, three years for technical-level education, two years for candidates who hold a bachelor’s degree and one year for candidates who have attended postgraduate courses with a minimum of 360 class hours. Holders of master’s or PhD degrees do not need to submit letters of experience.
If the Brazilian sponsoring company belongs to the same economic group of the current employer of the candidate, then a letter of experience may be prepared in Brazil and signed by an officer of the Brazilian company. In this case, the letter should be prepared in Portuguese, and there will be no need for further notarisation or legalisation.
If the individual has not been working for the same economic group for the required minimum period, a letter from previous employers will also be required, as well as a minimum of five years’ experience.
The foreign national will be an employee of the Brazilian company and have the option of earning his or her total remuneration in Brazil or part in Brazil and part abroad (split payroll). The employment contract will be governed by Brazilian labour law and the foreign national will have all the benefits provided by the Brazilian labour legislation, such as a Christmas bonus, 30-day annual holiday, one-third holiday bonus, guaranteed severance fund and social security. During the first two years, the employment contract must be for a definite period. Should the Brazilian company want to extend the contract beyond a two-year period, the new employment contract must be for an indefinite term.
The visa will be valid for up to two years (either for one year and then renewed, or two years from the beginning), and at the end of the second year it can be changed into a residence permit of an indefinite term.
In considering the visa extension or change-of-status request, the following aspects will be taken into consideration:
- the need for continuous services to be rendered by the foreign national, respecting the interests of the Brazilian workers;
- compliance with any conditions that may have been established at the moment the initial work permit was granted; and
- the development of the workforce – both Brazilian and foreign employees – from the moment when the original work permit was granted to the moment when the extension is being requested.
In the case of a change of status, a justification presented by the foreign national about his or her intention to permanently settle in Brazil is also required.
Work visas and residence permits based on technical assistance agreements with no employment contract
Under NR No. 3/17, a prior residence authorisation for the issuance of a temporary visa or a residence permit may be granted for up to one year, renewable for another year, for technicians coming to work in Brazil under a technical assistance contract for foreign equipment, or a cooperation or convention agreement between a Brazilian company and a foreign company. Foreign nationals will remain as employees of the foreign company and cannot receive salaries from Brazilian companies. This visa or residence permit cannot be granted to foreign nationals who will hold functions in Brazil that are merely of an administrative, financial or managerial nature.
In cases of emergency, and for the short-term temporary visa valid for up to 180 days, it is also mandatory to apply to the CGIg in Brasilia to obtain an advance residence authorisation, before the visa can be granted by the consulate abroad.
A copy of the document issued by the Brazilian federal revenue service agency in the case of the sale and purchase of foreign equipment, or of the contract between Brazilian and foreign companies for the rendering of services, must also be submitted. However, if the companies belong to the same economic group or if the visa being applied for is a short-term visa for up to 180 days, an extract of the contract will suffice.
Work visas and residence permits under a transfer-of-technology agreement with no employment contract
Under NR No. 4/17, a prior residence authorisation for the issuance of a temporary visa or a residence permit may be granted for up to one year, renewable for another year, for foreign individuals coming to work in Brazil under a technology transfer contract or a technology transfer cooperation or convention agreement between a Brazilian company and a foreign company. Foreign nationals will remain as employees of the foreign company and cannot receive salaries from Brazilian companies. This visa cannot be granted to foreign nationals who will hold functions in Brazil that are merely of an administrative, financial or managerial nature. As part of the work application documentation, an outline of the technology-transfer training programme must also be submitted, including:
- the professional qualifications of the foreign national;
- the scope of the training programme;
- the number of Brazilians who will be trained;
- the form of execution of the training programme;
- the place where the training will be given;
- the expected duration of the training programme; and
- the results expected from the training programme.
If the place of signature of the contract is not in Brazil, and the agreement is executed abroad, an apostilled or legalised copy, as the case may be, of the contract between the Brazilian companies and the foreign companies for the rendering of services must also be submitted. In the case of a cooperation agreement between companies belonging to the same economic group, a statement signed by an officer of the Brazilian company identifying the companies and explaining the existing link between the companies is also required.
ii Labour market regulation
The labour market is protected on the basis of legislation that stipulates that two out of any given three employees must be Brazilian, with this rule being applicable to both payroll and headcount.
iii Rights and duties of sponsored employees
In Brazil, the obligations placed on employees with sponsored status vary depending on the type of visa or residence permit applied for.
The normal rule is that a foreigner can only work for the employer sponsoring the visa, and only in the position or function for which the visa or residence permit was granted.
Student permits may be changed to a residence permit with a local employment contract in Brazil.
V INVESTORS, SKILLED MIGRANTS AND ENTREPRENEURS
Investor and entrepreneur visas are now regarded as one type of visa or residence permit, which falls within the scope of NR No. 13/17. The prior residence authorisation for the issuance of the temporary visa and the residence permit can be granted to foreign nationals who want to come to Brazil to invest their own foreign capital in Brazil in productive activities or start-up companies.
Foreign nationals will need to prove the investment of a minimum amount of the equivalent, in foreign currency, of 500,000 reais.
In special situations, if the investment is lower than the equivalent of 500,000 reais but not less than 150,000 reais, the CGIg may render a decision granting the advance residence authorisation or residence permit to foreign nationals who can prove the social relevance of the projects concerned.
In the case of start-ups, the required capital is only the equivalent of 150,000 reais to 500,000 reais.
The residence authorisation or permit will be for an indefinite term. Note that the identity card issued to the immigrant by the Federal Police will be valid for nine years and will then have to be renewed. However, to maintain that authorisation, the individual is required to present evidence that he or she remains a foreign investor, that the business plan was complied with, and that the project generated the job positions for Brazilians that were indicated in the original process.
Furthermore, the New Migration Law provides that skilled migrants can apply directly for a temporary visa or a residence permit even if without a Brazilian sponsor. However, this provision has still to be regulated to be implemented by the Brazilian immigration authorities.
VI OUTLOOK AND CONCLUSIONS
Following the recent changes to the Brazil’s migration legislation, the country is more open than ever before and has embraced humanitarian immigration rights and family reunion for foreign immigrants. The country welcomes foreigners struggling in their home countries because of persecution on grounds of race, creed, nationality, social group and politics.
Brazil is eager to develop new sectors and industries and is making it easier for foreigners to travel to and work in the country. There is already a variety of industries and sectors such as renewable energy, oil and gas, information technology, healthcare, manufacturing, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals that can benefit from the transfer of technology and know-how of companies that have developed their business around the world.
As to being able to live in Brazil for a more indefinite term without the requirement to work for a specific company or employer, there is likely to be an increase in the number of filings for Brazilian citizenship by those nationalities that allow dual citizenship.
1 Maria Luisa Soter is a partner and Gabriela Lessa is a senior counsel at Veirano Advogados.
3 The Immigration Law, Decrees, Administrative Orders, Administrative Resolutions, Normative Resolutions and Recommended Resolutions are available at www.trabalho.gov.br/trabalho-estrangeiro/nova-legislacao.
4 Convention of 5 October 1961, Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents.
8 Article 354 of the Brazilian Labour Code.
9 Temporary Medical Practice Visa (VICAM). Detailed information on the programme and the list of countries whose nationals can apply for this visa can be found at http://miami.itamaraty.gov.br/en-us/more_doctors_for_brazil.xml.
10 Article 354 of the Brazilian Labour Code.