Since the first oil discovery 111 years ago, the Argentine oil and gas sector worked under different rules and contractual schemes, from service contracts (1950s), risk service contracts (1970s) and agreements with YPF SE under the 'Plan Houston' (1980s), all of them characterised by the omnipresent role of the national state-owned company YPF SE, which owned the exploration and production rights in the hydrocarbons fields, to the 'deregulated' era (1990s) during which YPF SE was privatised, becoming YPF SA, existing contracts were converted into exploitation concessions and exploration permits and exploitation concessions were granted through public bidding rounds organised by the federal government.

Between 2002 and 2012, many of the basic rights permits and concessions holders enjoyed were affected by regulations and governmental practices in a context of an economy that, in general terms, became less investor- and market-friendly. Finally, in 2012 51 per cent of the shares of YPF SA were expropriated and the 'deregulation' regime was formally repealed.2

As result of the policies and practices implemented between 2002 and 2012, production and reserves dropped dramatically, and the country lost the hydrocarbons self-sufficiency it had achieved during the 1990s.

After the expropriation of YPF SE, the same administration that had been responsible for the policies and practices of the previous decade and for the adverse consequences derived therefrom showed a positive change of attitude towards the upstream industry, evidenced by a new pricing policy and the passing of legislation aimed at encouraging investment in new projects, especially those relating to unconventional resources.3

Argentina's technically recoverable shale resources are among the largest in the world and, in recent years the industry's attention as well as the government's policies have been focused on the exploration and development of these resources.4

When the current administration of President Macri took office in December 2015, the development of the country's shale resources was in a very early stage. Since then, in the context of a more investment-friendly environment and higher international prices, the exploration and development of unconventional resources has increased and seems to have gathered momentum, with several projects passing from pilot to development phase, and shale and tight sands production having become a substantial portion of the total national production, so much so that, despite the continuing decline of conventional fields, the surplus production of natural gas during the last warm season allowed the federal government to authorise exports to Chile and other countries for the first time in more than a decade.

Since April 2018, Argentina has been struggling with financial difficulties derived from a combination of international and domestic causes. This resulted in the execution of a standby facility agreement with the International Monetary Fund and a significant devaluation of the Argentine peso.

Although the situation described above impacted on certain pricing policies relating to the oil and gas sector (the government discontinued the unconventional gas subsidies programme, which remains in force in connection with already approved projects only), the production of unconventional hydrocarbons continued to grow steadily, becoming a substantial portion of the national production, as mentioned above.

General elections are scheduled for October 2019, and it is probable that Mr Alberto Fernández, the candidate of a predominantly 'Peronista' (populist) party opposition coalition, will prevail over the current president, Mr Macri, who is running for re-election. If that is the case, the continuing development of the country's unconventional resources would require a clear commitment from Mr Fernández in terms of maintaining the development of these resourses pursuant to the current legal framework as a strategy and long-term national policy. So far, Mr Fernández has repeatedly stated that he considers the development of Vaca Muerta a strategic and a key aspect of his government in the event he is elected President.


In Argentina, the state (the federal government or the provinces, as applicable) owns the hydrocarbons in the subsoil, and the rights the state grants for the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves are separate from surface ownership. Once extracted, the hydrocarbons belong to the companies holding the relevant exploration and production rights.

The National Constitution, as amended in 1984, provides in its Article 124 that 'the eminent domain of the natural resources existing in their respective territories belongs to the provinces'. The provision became effective when Law 26,197, enacted in 2006, amended Law 17,319 (the Hydrocarbons Law) in accordance with Article 124. Therefore, as per the current Hydrocarbons Law, hydrocarbons belong to the provinces where they are located or to the nation if the resources are located in federal territory.

This means that the relevant state (nation or province) owning the resources has full authority to award rights for the exploration, development and exploitation of the resources (exploration permits, exploitation concessions and association agreements with state-owned companies) and is the enforcement authority in connection with these awards and contracts.

i Domestic oil and gas legislation

The federal Hydrocarbons Law amended, among others, by Laws 26,197 and 27,007, contains the basic material legislation in relation to the exploration, development and production of hydrocarbons.

In line with the basic rule contained in the National Constitution, the law provides that the hydrocarbons fields located in Argentine territory belong to the public domain of the national state or the provinces where the fields are located and that fields located beyond 12 nautical miles from the shoreline and until the external limit of the continental shelf belong to the federal state.

The law also sets forth, as basic principles applicable to the sector, that: (1) the federal state shall establish the general policy in relation to the exploration, exploitation, industrialisation, transport and commercialisation of hydrocarbons; (2) the holders of permits and concessions shall own the hydrocarbons extracted by them and shall be able to freely market, transport and industrialise them, subject to such regulatory provisions issued by the federal executive branch on reasonable and economic basis; and (3) during periods in which the production is insufficient to cover domestic needs, the entire availability of locally produced hydrocarbons shall be used to supply domestic demand.

The law provides for an exploration and production licences scheme, as will be explained below.

The Hydrocarbons Law is supplemented by numerous executive orders and resolutions.

Other important laws are Laws No. 24,145 (federalisation of hydrocarbons), No. 26,659 (restrictions in connection with the exploration and production of petroleum in the continental shelf) and No 26,741 (establishing the achievement of petroleum self-sufficiency as a matter of national strategic interest and expropriating the controlling shares of YPF SA).

The Hydrocarbons Law coexists with hydrocarbon laws and regulations passed by certain oil and gas-producing provinces, like the Province of Neuquén Hydrocarbons Law No. 2,453, Province of Mendoza Hydrocarbons Law No. 7,526, Province of Chubut Hydrocarbons Law XVII No. 102, or Province of La Pampa Hydrocarbons Law No. 2,675, which, in general, are substantially aligned with the provisions of the Hydrocarbons Law.

ii Regulation

At a national level, the Secretariat of Energy, a subdivision within the Ministry of the Economy, is the main governmental body involved in energy regulation. The secretariat's under-secretariat specifically devoted to oil and gas is the Under-Secretariat of Hydrocarbons and Fuels.

Each oil- and gas-producing province has its own oil and gas regulators. Provincial regulators are governed by the federal Hydrocarbons Law and by provincial legislation and regulations.

Under the Hydrocarbons Law, the national policies in respect of exploration, development, production, transportation and marketing of hydrocarbons shall be determined by the national executive branch. This means that although the provinces own the hydrocarbons, have the power to grant permits or concessions and have regulatory powers as regards the way in which the federal hydrocarbons regime is applied in their territories, the power to establish the national hydrocarbons policy and to pass material legislation remains with the federal government and Congress (as provided by the National Constitution and several federal regulations, such as the Hydrocarbons Law, Law No. 26,197 and Law No. 26,741).

iii Treaties

Argentina is a party to several conventions governing dispute resolution and recognition and enforcement of awards and judgments including, among others, the 1958 New York Convention, approved by Law No. 23,619.5

Argentina is a party to 58 bilateral foreign investment protection treaties.6

Argentina is a party to 21 double taxation treaties.7


Private parties can obtain E&P rights through Superficial Inspection Permits, Exploration Permits, Exploitation Concessions and Association Agreements with state-owned companies.

i Surface inspection permits

Under a surface inspection permit, the permit holder is granted the right to conduct a surface survey on a certain area, including carrying out geologic and geophysical studies, and employing other methods, such as the drafting of plans or the performance of topographic and geodesic surveys.8

Upon the expiration of the term of the permit, the primary data obtained from the surface inspection shall be delivered to the enforcement authority, which may process the data or have it processed by third parties, and may use it as it deems convenient for its own purposes. During the two years following delivery, the information shall not be disclosed without the express consent of the party that performed the surface inspection, except if permits or concessions are awarded in the prospected zone.9

ii Exploration permits

The holder of an exploration permit has the exclusive right to perform exploratory activities within the permit area and to obtain an exploitation concession if the holder discovers oil or gas in commercially exploitable quantities and conditions (commercial discovery) during the term of its permit.10

iii Exploitation concessions

Exploitation concessions grant the exclusive right to exploit the existing hydrocarbon fields located in the concession area.11

The exploitation of a field involves the development of its potential. By the same token, the exploitation concession implies for the concessionaire the ability to build and operate treatment plants as well as other facilities needed for the operations, including having the right to request a transportation concession for the transportation of the production out of the concession area.

The hydrocarbons shall belong to the concessionaire in accordance with its participating interest in the concession, and the concessionaire shall be able to dispose of its share of the production freely, subject to the general limitations contained in the Hydrocarbons Law and its supplementary regulations.

iv Association agreements with province-owned companies

Typically, in these agreements the province-owned company is the owner of the exploration and production rights and makes such rights available to the joint venture with the private party or parties.

Usually, the province-owned company holds a 10 per cent participating interest.

The private parties assume all the exploratory risk on an exclusive basis. In some agreements, the private parties are allowed to recover these costs from the province-owned company upon a commercial discovery and the entry into the exploitation stage by applying a certain percentage (usually 50 per cent) of the provincial company's entitlement to the production. Upon the occurrence of a commercial discovery and the subsequent grant of an exploitation concession on the block, the province-owned company must pay its share of capital and operating expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX).12

The hydrocarbons shall belong to each party in accordance with its participating interest in the contract and each party shall be able to dispose of its share of the production freely, subject to the general limitations contained in the Hydrocarbons Law and its supplementary regulations.

The private party (or one of the private parties if there is more than one) shall be the operator.

The association agreements are awarded, within the framework of a public bidding process called by the executive branch of the relevant province, by the province-owned company, and the award requires the approval by the province.

v Processes by which licences are awarded

Surface inspection permits are granted by the relevant governmental authority upon a request made by a company willing to conduct the surface inspection.

Exploration permits are granted through public bidding rounds. The criteria to award the blocks are based on the work units' commitment made by the bidder and, in some bids, on the entry fee offered by the bidder. The public tender will be awarded to the bidder proposing the highest offer, in accordance with a formula that considers the aspects mentioned above.

Exploitation concessions can be obtained: (1) by the holder of an exploration permit, upon the occurrence of a commercial discovery, over all or a portion of the exploration area; (2) through a public bidding round in connection with 'proved' blocks (blocks where exploration activities are deemed unnecessary); or (3) in the case of unconventional exploitation concessions, by the holder of an exploitation concession that, based on the unconventional potential of the block, asks for a subdivision of the concession area and for the grant of an unconventional concession on the subdivided area with unconventional potential.

Association agreements with state-owned companies are granted through public bidding rounds.

vi Key terms for licences

As per the Hydrocarbons Law, the exploration periods shall be set forth in the terms and conditions applicable to each public bid, within the following maximum terms.

For a permit with a conventional objective, there is a basic term of three years plus three years, plus an extension term of five years. In permits referring to offshore exploration, each of the periods of the basic term can be increased by one year.

For a permit with an unconventional objective, the basic term is four years plus four years, plus an extension term of five years.

At the end of the first period of the basic term, the permit holder shall be able to keep all the exploration area, while at the end of the second period of the basic term, the exploration area shall be relinquished, unless an extension is requested, in which case at least 50 per cent of the area shall be relinquished.

The term of exploitation concessions is 25 years (30 years for offshore concessions). The term of unconventional exploitation concessions is 35 years.

Concessions can be renewed for 10-year periods, and there is no limit on the number of renewals, which must be requested not less than one year before the expiry of the current term and can be requested by concessionaires that are in compliance with their obligations under the relevant concession. Extensions are not granted automatically but require governmental approval so, in practice, some negotiation is required.

vii Revocation and expiry of licences

Permits and concessions will be revoked for the following reasons: (1) failure to pay any annual surface fee within three months of becoming due; (2) failure to pay royalties within three months of becoming due; (3) substantial and unjustified failure to comply with specified obligations with respect to productivity, conservation, investment, works or special benefits; (4) repeated infringement of the duty to submit information, to facilitate inspections by the enforcement authority or to use adequate techniques for the execution of the works; (5) failure to comply with the obligations provided in Articles 22 and 33 of the Hydrocarbons Law; (6) bankruptcy of the permit or concession holder; (7) death of the individual or dissolution of the legal entity holding the permit or concession.13 Before declaring the revocation owing to any of the aforementioned causes, the enforcement authority shall serve notice to the permit or concession holders requiring them to remedy the infringement within the term stated in the notice.14

Permits and concessions will expire upon the lapse of their terms or upon relinquishment by the holder. In case of partial relinquishment, the permit or concession will expire in respect of the relinquished area only.15

viii Government take

Royalties on the production of hydrocarbons must be paid every month to the relevant province or to the national government.16

The Hydrocarbons Law provides for a 12 per cent royalty on the net price obtained from the sale of hydrocarbons produced under exploitation concessions and a 15 per cent royalty on the net sales of hydrocarbons produced under exploration permits.

Royalties can be reduced by up to 50 per cent in tertiary production (enhanced oil recovery and improved oil recovery), extra heavy oil and offshore projects that, owing to their particular productivity issues and location, present especially unfavourable technical and economic characteristics.17

During the extension periods of concessions, an additional royalty of up to 3 per cent can be added, with an 18 per cent total cap.

The royalty provided in the law shall be the only government take calculated on the production.18

The Hydrocarbons Law establishes that the holders of exploration permits and concessions must pay a fixed yearly fee (payable in advance in January), which is calculated by each square kilometre of the permit or concession area. During the exploration phase, these yearly fees vary depending on the exploration period, as explained below.

Law No. 27,007 allows for an extension bonus to be charged when a concession extension is granted. The maximum bonus shall be equal to the figure resulting from multiplying the proved reserves remaining at the end of the term of the concession by 2 per cent of the average price in the relevant basin for the two-year period prior to the granting of the extension.


Licence holders own and have the free availability of their share of the petroleum substances produced from the relevant area, subject to the general limitations established in the applicable regulations, basically to secure adequate supply of the domestic market.19

In line with the aforementioned, the production of crude oil exports has to be offered to the domestic market first.

Governmental authorisation is required for any gas exports.20 Owing to the surplus production during the last warm season (October to April), the Ministry of Energy and Mining authorised several exports of natural gas for the first time in a decade, under interruptible supply terms, without applying any reimport requirements.21

Market prices apply for crude oil, taking Brent as a reference and applying certain discounts thereon.

As regards natural gas prices, there is a mix of regulated and market prices.

The Ministry of Energy Resolution No. 46/17, as amended by Resolutions No. 419/17 and 12/18, established a subsidies programme to stimulate investments for the development of production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs in the Neuquén Basin. Pursuant to this scheme, a guaranteed minimum price of US$7.50/MMBtu applied during 2018, and, thereafter, it will decrease US$0.50 per year until it reaches US$6/MMBtu in 2021. On 31 December 2021, the programme will end and prices should match import parity values. The difference between the minimum guaranteed prices and the actual market prices will be paid to the producers by the federal government. A few projects qualified for this subsidy before the government announced that no more projects would be approved under this scheme earlier this year.

Ministry of Energy Resolution 212E/2016 established a scheme for a gradual increase in the price of natural gas not included in the incentive programme mentioned above that began in 2016 and will end in 2019 when domestic prices would converge with import parity prices. However, the government intends that by the end of 2019 all gas prices (except for gas produced from projects that have already qualified for a subsidised price programme) be subject to market prices. In line with this, Ministry of Energy Resolution No. 46/18, issued in 2018, provides that gas for power generation shall be acquired through tender processes to be conducted by CAMMESA (the company that administers the wholesale electricity market).


According to Article 72 of the Hydrocarbons Law, participating interests in permits and concessions can be assigned, with the prior authorisation of the executive branch (federal or provincial, as applicable), in favour of those that fulfil the financial and technical conditions and requirements needed to be a permit holder or concessionaire.

Under Article 73 of the Hydrocarbons Law, a concessionaire can assign its interest in an Exploitation Concession as a security interest in respect of loans obtained to finance the upstream operations in the relevant concession area.

Provincial hydrocarbon laws contain provisions in line with the ones described above.

The change of control of the company holding the licence does not require governmental authorisation.

The federal state and most of the provinces do not have any rights of first refusal upon the assignment of participating interests in permits or concessions submitted to the relevant authorities for their authorisation.22

The transfer of any upstream licence is subject to the rules of Argentine Antitrust Law No. 27,442, and, therefore, approval by the antitrust regulator might be required, depending on the specific circumstances of each transaction.

Usually assignment authorisations can be obtained within 60 or 90 days of the request and the information required being submitted.


Within the national jurisdiction, in accordance with the relevant provisions and as long as they are applicable, upstream companies will be liable for the payment of all federal taxes generally applicable in the country (income tax, value added tax, debits and credits in bank accounts tax) and any applicable customs duties.

They shall also be liable for the payment of all provincial (gross income tax and stamp tax) and municipal taxes in force as of the date of the award. During the term of duration of the permits and concessions, the provinces and municipalities shall not levy new taxes upon the holders thereof, nor increase the rate of preexistent taxes, except for those rates paid in consideration for the performance of services and as contributions for improvements, or a general increase of taxes.23


i Environmental laws and environmental regulators

Pursuant to Article 41 of the National Constitution, legislative powers are transferred by the provinces in favour of the federal state for the issuance of basic rules of general application in environmental matters.

Following this criterion, at the national level the hydrocarbons sector is governed by: (1) general regulations containing minimum environmental protection standards, such as Law No. 25,675 (the General Environmental Law) and Law No. 24,501 (the Hazardous Waste Law); and (2) general regulations and minimum standards specifically applicable to hydrocarbon activities issued by the enforcement authority while exercising the powers delegated by the Hydrocarbons Law to that effect. For a long time, this authority was held by the Secretariat of Energy. Other regulations could also be issued by the Secretariat of the Environment and Sustainable Development.

The main applicable regulations include:

  1. policies and procedures for the protection of the environment: Resolution SE No. 105/92 (1) requires the submission of a prior environmental study before drilling the first exploratory well and commencing development of the reserves, (2) provides for the implementation of an annual monitoring of works and tasks and (3) sets out in detail technical guidelines to be followed in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons;
  2. annual environmental monitoring reports: Resolution SE No. 25/04 defines and describes the technical characteristics, structure and scope of environmental studies and annual environmental monitoring reports. The environmental studies include four phases: an initial environmental status; an identification and characterisation of environmental effects and prioritisation of environmental impacts; an environmental impact mitigation plan; and a monitoring plan;
  3. contingency plans and information about incidents: If an environmental incident occurs, contingency plans must meet the guidelines provided under Resolution SE No. 342/93 and the enforcement authority must be informed within the deadlines and satisfying the requirements established by Resolution SE No. 24/04;
  4. emission (i.e., venting) of gas to the atmosphere: Resolution SE No. 143/98 establishes guidelines and mandatory limits on this matter and the exceptions, under certain justified circumstances, authorised to exceed these limits;
  5. safety conditions and maintenance of storage tanks of crude oil and by-products: Decree No. 10877/60 describes the active and passive defences to be implemented in the facilities. Resolution SE No. 785/05 created the Programme for the Control of Spills from Surface Storage Tanks, which established that companies that have these facilities have to register and inspect the tanks. Companies must also comply with a maintenance plan, report any incidents and report the abandonment of the tanks;
  6. safety auditing service: Resolution SE No. 419/93 and other supplementary regulations provide for the refineries', storage companies' and operators of service stations' obligation to hire safety auditing services to certify, on an annual basis, compliance with the applicable safety regulations; and
  7. provincial regulations: The provinces are empowered to supplement the federal regulations with local regulations, provided they do not overstep the established principle of federal law preeminence.24 In this regard, provincial regulations have been passed in connection with several environmental matters, such as a gaseous emissions control regime, subterranean water exploitation regime, groundwater exploitation regime and pressurised devices control regime.

ii Environmental approvals necessary for oil and gas operations

An environmental study must be prepared prior to the development of a new project and submitted to the relevant (provincial or national) environmental enforcement authority. Upon the approval of the study, the operation can begin and the operator shall comply with recommendations, restrictions and conditions (if any) contained in such approval (Resolution SE No. 105/92 and related regulations).

Additionally, the operator will have to (1) obtain an authorisation for the use of water in the project, which shall include the origin of the water and the conditions under which it shall be used, and (2) register with the National Hazardous Waste Generators Registry and the issuance of the Annual Environmental Certificate (Law No. 24,051, Decree No. 831/93 and other regulations).

iii Legal requirements with respect to decommissioning

Resolution No. 5/96 issued by the former Secretariat of Energy established rules and procedures for the abandonment of oil and gas wells, including a timetable for the abandonment of certain wells. On an annual basis the operator shall report the decommissioning works performed in the past year and those to be performed in the following year. Four years before the expiration of the respective concessions, or as from the date of relinquishment of all or part of an exploitation block, the concessionaire must submit a technical and economic study explaining the reasons why the abandonment of each inactive well could be inconvenient. Recommended techniques for performing definitive abandonment are detailed in the same resolution. The technical conditions applicable to the abandonment of gas pipelines and ancillary facilities are established in resolutions NAG 100 and NAG 153 of Enargas.25 The abandonment of these facilities requires the prior consent of Enargas, which will evaluate whether there is a general interest in keeping the facilities operative.

There is no requirement to constitute a fund to pay any costs associated with the abandonment of wells and facilities.


i Establishment

There are no foreign investment approvals or restrictions in relation to investment in petroleum.

Foreign investors wishing to hold an interest in an upstream licence will have to (1) register a branch of a foreign company with the Public Registry of Commerce;26 or (2) set up a local company (usually a sociedad anónima (stock company), a sociedad anónima unipersonal (stock company with a sole shareholder) or a sociedad de responsabilidad limitada (limited liability company). To act as a shareholder or quota holder of an Argentine company, a foreign company must register with the Public Registry of Commerce with the sole purpose of being a shareholder or quota holder of a local company.27

In the City of Buenos Aires, registering a branch may take between 30 and 45 days, while establishing a local company may take between 60 and 90 days, including the registration of the foreign companies that will be the shareholders and the incorporation of the new company.

A branch is not a separate entity from the foreign company that has registered it. A sociedad anónima, a sociedad anónima unipersonal and a sociedad de responsabilidad limitada are separate entities from their shareholders or quotaholders who limit their responsibility to the integration of their respective capital contributions.

From an administrative point of view, branches are quite simple structures as the only requirement is to have a legal representative, while companies require the appointment of a board of directors or managers. Two-thirds of the members of the board must be Argentine residents.

ii Capital, labour and content restrictions

Capital restrictions

Currently no restrictions apply on the movement of capital or access to foreign exchange. Declared dividends as well as the profits of a branch can be freely repatriated. There are no restrictions either in connection repayments of loans to external creditors.

Local content requirements applicable to oil and gas operations

The Hydrocarbons Law provides that those performing works it regulates shall prefer to hire nationals and, particularly, residents of the region where the works shall be performed, and that the proportion of nationals employed by each concessionaire or permit holder shall not be less than 75 per cent.28 In practice, exceptions to the above-mentioned rule are accepted in connection with specialist workers that are not available in Argentina or in the region where operations are conducted.

Similar provisions can be found in provincial laws and regulations, as well as in the terms and conditions applicable to bidding rounds organised by the provinces.

Also, there are certain provincial regulations establishing an obligation to favour the hiring of services from local suppliers.29

Restrictions on the ability to hire foreign workers

There are no restrictions to hire foreign workers, provided that the applicable immigration regulations are complied with.30

iii Anti-corruption

The following is a summary of the anticorruption regulations.

Public Ethics Law No 25,188 and its regulatory Decree No. 164/1999

Public Ethics Law No 25,188 and its regulatory Decree No. 164/1999 set forth the duties, prohibitions and incompatibilities applicable to all public officers and establish, among other duties and prohibitions, that public officers shall: (1) strictly abide by the National Constitution and the laws; (2) act honestly, diligently and in good faith; (3) act in the public interest; (4) not obtain or receive any personal benefit related to the performance, the delay in performing or the omission to perform any act inherent to their functions; (5) use public property only for authorised purposes related to the performance of their duties and shall not use or allow any third party to use any information obtained in connection with their public functions in the benefit of private interests; and (6) observe, in any public bidding process, the equality, publicity, free competition and reasonability principles.

The Anti-Corruption Agency, answerable to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, is the Authority of Application of Law No. 25,188 and is responsible for preparing and coordinating anti-corruption policies as well as investigating corruption cases. The agency also keeps public officers' assets disclosure records and provides a whistle-blower mechanism on its website.

Argentine Criminal Code

Bribery of foreign or local public officers is prohibited and penalised in Article 258(b) of the Argentine Criminal Code (ACC).

Article 258(b) punishes with prison any person who offers or gives to a public officer from a foreign state or from an international public organisation, personally or through an intermediary, money or any object of pecuniary value or other gifts, promises or benefits, for their own benefit or for the benefit of a third party, for the purpose of having the officer perform or not perform an action related to their function or to use the influence derived from the office they hold in an economic, financial or commercial transaction.

Articles 256 to 259, on the other hand, punish both the citizen who bribes an Argentine public officer and the public officer who receives the bribe. The punishment is increased when the public officer is a judge, prosecutor or any other person related to the administration of justice.

Article 256(b) of the ACC sets forth provisions regarding 'improper lobbying'. This article states that anyone who requests or receives money or any other gift or accepts a promise of such to exert unlawful influence on a public official will be punished.

Criminal liability of legal entities

Law No. 27,401, enacted in late 2017, provides the criminal liability of private legal entities in connection with the offences contemplated in Articles 258 and 258 bis described above, Article 265 (negotiations that are not compatible with the exercise of public functions), Article 268 (extortion) and Article 300 bis (false or fraudulent financial statements) of the Criminal Code.

The sanctions provided by the law include fines, suspension of activities and dissolution. The company may receive a reduced fine, and it may even be released from any criminal liability if it self-reports an offence provided for in the law, of which it has become aware as result of proper internal controls implemented before the occurrence of the wrongdoing that is being reported, and provided it returns the unlawful benefit obtained.

Anti-corruption conventions

Argentina has signed – without reserves – the following anticorruption conventions:

  1. the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (IACAC) 1996;
  2. the Convention for Combating Bribery of Foreign Officers in International Business Transactions (OECD Anti-Bribery Convention) 1997;
  3. the United Nations Conventions against Business Corruption 2003; and
  4. the United Nations Convention against Private Corruption, 2003.


With 11 blocks already undergoing massive development, Vaca Muerta continues to be at the centre of the industry's and government's attention.

The increase in the production of unconventional hydrocarbons contributed to improve the total oil production as well as the total gas production, even when the existing conventional fields continued to decline. In June 2019, the national oil production amounted to 500,000 bbl/d, 4 per cent more than the previous year, while the natural gas production amounted to 140 million m³/d, 5.8 per cent more than the previous year. This was the largest production of natural gas in the country since 2009.31

This situation, which if it continues as expected, might lead the country's energy trade balance to show a positive figure between 2020 and 2021,32 has allowed Argentina to resume natural gas exports to its neighbours, especially Chile, for the first time in more than a decade, all of them approved in accordance with former Ministry of Energy's Resolution No. 104/18 (issued on 21 August 2018) described above, by companies such as YPF, Total, Pan American Energy, Pampa Energía, Wintershall and Exxonmobil.33

The growing surplus natural gas production during the warm season, and eventually throughout the year, requires that new infrastructure and export alternatives be made available in the near to mid-term future, such as new pipelines and facilities that will enable the country to carry out LNG exports to Asia and other overseas markets, which will require substantial investment in infrastructure (transportation, liquefaction facilities, shipping facilities, etc.) as well as a more production and transportation cost-effective structure.

In this respect, the federal government has launched a public tender for the construction and operation of a new gas pipeline from the Vaca Muerta area in the Province of Neuquén to Saliqueló, in the south of the Province of Buenos Aires. The first stage, of 57km, should be completed by mid-2021. Other projects, whose implementation has not begun yet or that are still undergoing an early evaluation stage, are the 'Vaca Muerta Train', a 700km railway for the transportation of supplies and materials from the city of Bahía Blanca, in the Province of Buenos Aires, to Añelo, in the Province of Neuquén, and a construction of a liquefaction facility in Bahía Blanca.

In the crude oil transportation department, Executive Order 115/19 (which amended Executive Order 44/91), passed earlier this year, empowered the Secretariat of Energy to launch public bidding processes for the grant of one or more liquid hydrocarbons transportation concessions. The Executive Order also provides that, in order to facilitate the financing of new petroleum transportation projects, the developer of a new pipeline, as well as an existing concessionaire willing to expand its transportation facilities, may sell and reserve firm capacity in advance, at transportation tariffs to be freely negotiated with the transporters willing to secure transportation capacity in the new facilities.

Last, the first offshore bidding round was launched during the last quarter of 2018 (Executive Order 872/18 and SE Resolution 65/18) and bids were received on 16 April 2019. Of the 38 blocks offered in three offshore basins, 18 were awarded to 13 companies.34 The total work commitments amounted to approximately US$700 million. The formal grant of the exploration permits to the winning bidders is expected for late August or early September 2019.

The large basins in Argentina's continental shelf are mostly unexplored, except for a few natural gas-producing shallow waters blocks in the Austral Marina Basin near the Tierra del Fuego and Santa Cruz provinces. The grant of exploration permits under this bidding round will be a great opportunity to acquire valuable information that will allow the companies involved, and the country, to have a better knowledge of the actual potential of the basins and to eventually develop the resources that may be discovered.

The general elections scheduled for October this year, in which there is a significant chance that the 'Peronista' party candidate, Mr Alberto Fernández, may prevail over the current President, Mr Macri, and former Minister of the Economy Mr Roberto Lavagna, together with the financial difficulties the country has been going through since last year, may delay certain investment announcements and projects. However, all of the above-mentioned candidates have stressed that the complete development of the country's hydrocarbons resources, especially Vaca Muerta, will continue to be a strategic and a key aspect in the country's energy policy for years to come.


1 Pablo Alliani and Fernando Brunelli are partners at Alliani & Bruzzon.

2 YPF SA was expropriated by Law 27,461 while the 'deregulation' decrees were repealed by Decree No. 1722/12.

3 Among others, incentive plans for the development of new gas resources (SE Resolution No. 1/13) by which a minimum price was guaranteed by the Federal Government; Decree No. 929/13, which established certain tax, exports and free availability of proceeds benefits in connection with projects involving a minimum investment amount; and Law No. 27,007, which amended the Hydrocarbons Law No. 17,319 and enhanced the benefits scheme provided for in Decree No. 929/13.

4 A United States Energy Information Agency's report issued in April 2011 estimated Argentina's technically recoverable resources of shale gas in 774tcf, while a similar report issued by the same agency two years later increased its estimate to 831tcf of shale gas and 30 billion bbl of shale oil, which amounts to 70 and 13 times, respectively, the present proved gas and oil reserves of the country. Argentina's technically recoverable shale resources are the fourth and second largest in the world in connection, respectively, with oil and gas.

5 Other conventions to which the country is a party are the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States; the 1991 Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration; the 1979 Montevideo Inter-American Convention on the Extraterritorial Efficacy of Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards; the 1940 Montevideo Convention on International Procedural Law; the MERCOSUR International Commercial Agreement; and the MERCOSUR Protocol on Jurisdictional Cooperation and Assistance Agreement in Civil, Commercial, Labour and Administrative Matters.

6 Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium-Luxembourg, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Korea, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela and Vietnam.

7 Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom.

8 Hydrocarbons Law, Articles 14 and 15.

9 The last development in this regard was the former Ministry of Energy Resolution No. 197/18, which provided for a new set of regulations applicable to surface inspection permits on offshore areas (beyond 20 nautical miles from the coastline). This Resolution provides for a much longer term (eight years) than that applicable to other areas (12 months plus 12 months' extension), and gives the permit holder commercial exploitation rights, whereby the permit holder has the exclusive right to disclose (subject to a few exceptions) and commercialise the data obtained from the inspection activities, on a non-discriminatory basis, until two years after the expiration of the permit. Surface inspection permits currently in force can be converted into permits under this new Resolution, at the permit holder's request.

10 Hydrocarbons Law, Articles 16 to 26.

11 Hydrocarbons Law, Articles 27 to 38.

12 The agreements executed by Gas y Petróleo del Neuquén SA – the Province of Neuquén-owned company – provide that, upon the grant of an exploitation concession, the provincial company may opt between keeping its participating interest in the production and CAPEX and OPEX expenditures, or assign the participating interest to the private parties and receive a 2.5 per cent overriding royalty on the production from the concession area.

13 Article 33 provides for the obligation of the permit holder to declare commerciality within a certain term after the occurrence of a commercial discovery. Article 33 refers to the size of each exploitation lot and certain concessionaire's obligations in this respect.

14 Article 80 of Hydrocarbons Law.

15 Hydrocarbons Law, Article 81 HL.

16 Royalty is regulated by Articles 59 to 65 of the Hydrocarbons Law and by Decree No. 1,671/1969.

17 Hydrocarbons Law, Article 27 ter (introduced by Law No. 27,007).

18 However, in concessions that were extended before the enactment of Law No. 27,007 (2014), extra payments on the production may apply, such as additional payments of up to 3 per cent of the production, and certain windfall profit payments apply, which are triggered when the prices obtained for the hydrocarbons produced from the concession area exceed certain parameters.

19 Hydrocarbons Law, Article 6.

20 Law No. 24,076 and Secretariat of Energy Resolution No. 104/18 (passed on 21 August 2018) which, subject to the authority's authorisation, allows seasonal, long- and short-term firm and interruptible exports and exports required to deal with emergency situations with a subsequent obligation to reimport the same volumes that were exported

21 These were exports of natural gas to Chile, Uruguay and Brazil by companies such as YPF, Total, Pan American Energy, Pampa Energía, Wintershall and Exxonmobil.

22 As an exception, Decree No. 348/15 of the Province of Río Negro provides that the province will have a right to match the commercial terms of the intended assignment and acquire the participation once assignment authorisation has been requested.

23 Hydrocarbons Law, Article 56(a).

24 National Constitution, Article 3.

25 Enargas is the national gas regulator.

26 General Companies Law No. 19,550, Article 118.

27 General Companies Law No. 19,550, Article 123.

28 Hydrocarbons Law, Article 71.

29 Like Neuquén Law No. 3032, which contains an obligation to acquire certain percentages a minimum of 60 per cent of the contractual amount from companies based in Neuquén, which is calculated on an annual basis, in respect of each item or type of activity. This preference must be granted if the economic offer submitted by the Neuquén company is up to 7 per cent greater than the best offer submitted by the other companies, provided that the Neuquén company accepts to reduce its prices to match the best offer received.

30 Immigration Law No. 25,871, its Regulatory Decree No. 616/2010 and supplementary dispositions enacted by the enforcement authority, the National Immigration Directorate.

31 Source: Secretariat of Energy.

32 The last time Argentina showed a positive energy trade balance was in 2011.

33 The expansion of the natural gas production was boosted by, among other things, the prolific Fortín de Piedra project, the largest unconventional gas-producing block, where Tecpetrol is executing a US$2.3 billion investment plan.

34 Blocks were awarded to Equinor, YPF, Qatar Oil, Shell, Total, BP, Exxon, Pluspetrol, Wintershall, Tullow, Eni, Mitsui and Tecpetrol.