Publicly traded real estate companies and real estate investment trusts (REITs), with help from real estate private equity, have transformed the global real estate markets over the past 25 years. Their principal innovation, and secret sauce, is ‘liquid’ real estate. Unlike traditional property ownership, equity in publicly traded real estate vehicles is highly liquid, and can be bought and sold in large volumes, literally in minutes, on numerous global exchanges.
Publicly traded real estate vehicles have an aggregate market capitalisation of approximately US$1.7 trillion globally, including over US$1 trillion in the United States and approximately US$200 billion in each of Europe and Asia. As public REITs and other vehicles have aggregated these properties and grown in scale and sophistication, so too have real estate-focused private equity funds, playing an important role catalysing hundreds of billions of dollars of REIT and real estate M&A transactions and IPOs.
However, despite the massive growth, the potential growth is far larger both in long-standing REIT markets and in newer REIT jurisdictions, where the trend is more nascent. With increasing development and urbanisation, the world is producing more and more institutional-grade properties, and a growing percentage of this expanding pool – an estimated US$5 trillion and counting, so far – will inevitably seek the advantages of liquidity by migrating to the publicly traded markets. The growth is expected to be both local and cross-border, with approximately 40 countries already boasting REIT regimes.
REITs and other publicly-traded vehicles for liquid real estate have grown because they are often a superior vehicle for stabilised assets. Greater liquidity and transparency – and often superior governance – are attractive to investors, resulting in a lower cost of capital and superior access to vast amounts and varieties of capital in the public markets. In addition to cheaper capital, REITs and other public vehicles benefit from efficiencies of scale, sophisticated management and efficient deal structures, to name just a few advantages. With these advantages, the global march of real estate to the public markets seems unstoppable.
This publication is a multinational guide for understanding and navigating the increasingly complex and dynamic world of liquid real estate and the transactions that mostly produce it. The sea change in the markets, sometimes called the ‘REIT Revolution’, has meant that major real estate transactions have migrated from ‘Main Street’ to ‘Wall Street’. They now often take the form of mergers, acquisitions, takeovers, spin-offs and other corporate transactions conducted in the public markets for both equity and debt. They have grown exponentially in complexity and sophistication, and increasingly represent cross-border multinational transactions fuelled by the now global real estate capital markets and M&A deal professionals. And they are often intermediated by international investment banks rather than local brokers, and financed with unsecured bonds or commercial mortgage-backed securities. In a fair number of cases they are catalysed by private equity firms or similar actors, sometimes building portfolios to be taken public or sold to public real estate companies, and sometimes through buyouts of public real estate companies for repositioning or sale.
To create this publication, we have invited leading practitioners from around the globe to offer practical insights into what is going on around the conference tables and in the markets in their jurisdiction, with an eye to cross-border trends and transactions. As will quickly become evident, the process of liquefying real estate and the transactions involving public real estate companies require a melding of the legal principles, deal structures, cultures and financial models of traditional real estate, public company M&A and private equity. None of this, of course, happens in a vacuum, and transactions often require expertise in tax, corporate and real estate law, not to mention securities laws and global capital markets. Each of our distinguished authors touches on these disciplines.
We hope this compilation of insight from our remarkable multinational authors produces clarity and transparency into this exciting world of ‘liquid real estate’ and helps to further fuel the growth of the sector.
Adam Emmerich and Robin Panovka
Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz