List of Abbreviations

3G Third-generation (mobile wireless technology)

4G Fourth-generation (mobile wireless technology)

5G Fifth-generation (mobile wireless technology)

ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber line

AMPS Advanced mobile phone system

ARPU Average revenue per user

BIAP Broadband internet access provider

BWA Broadband wireless access


CDMA Code division multiple access

CMTS Cellular mobile telephone system

DAB Digital audio broadcasting

DECT Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications

DDoS Distributed denial-of-service

DoS Denial-of-service

DSL Digital subscriber line

DTH Direct-to-home

DTTV Digital terrestrial TV

DVB Digital video broadcast

DVB-H Digital video broadcast – handheld

DVB-T Digital video broadcast – terrestrial

ECN Electronic communications network

ECS Electronic communications service

EDGE Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution

FAC Full allocated historical cost

FBO Facilities-based operator

FCL Fixed carrier licence

FTNS Fixed telecommunications network services

FTTB Fibre to the building

FTTC Fibre to the curb

FTTH Fibre to the home

FTTN Fibre to the node

FTTP Fibre to the premises

FTTx Fibre to the x

FWA Fixed wireless access

Gb/s Gigabits per second

GB/s Gigabytes per second

GSM Global system for mobile communications

HDTV High-definition TV

HITS Headend in the sky

HSPA High-speed packet access

IaaS Infrastructure as a service

IAP Internet access provider

ICP Internet content provider

ICT Information and communications technology

IoT Internet of things

IPTV Internet protocol TV

IPv6 Internet protocol version 6

ISP Internet service provider

kb/s Kilobits per second

kB/s Kilobytes per second

LAN Local area network

LRIC Long-run incremental cost

LTE Long Term Evolution (4G technology for both GSM and CDMA cellular carriers)

Mb/s Megabits per second

MB/s Megabytes per second

MMDS Multichannel multipoint distribution service

MMS Multimedia messaging service

MNO Mobile network operator

MSO Multi-system operator

M2M Machine-to-machine

MVNO Mobile virtual network operator

MWA Mobile wireless access

NFC Near field communication

NGA Next-generation access

NIC Network information centre

NRA National regulatory authority

OTT Over-the-top (providers)

PaaS Platform as a service

PNETS Public non-exclusive telecommunications service

PSTN Public switched telephone network

RF Radio frequency

SaaS Software as a service

SBO Services-based operator

SMS Short message service

STD–PCOs Subscriber trunk dialling–public call offices

UAS Unified access services

UASL Unified access services licence

UCL Unified carrier licence

UHF Ultra-high frequency

UMTS Universal mobile telecommunications service

USO Universal service obligation

UWB Ultra-wideband

VDSL Very high speed digital subscriber line

VHF Very high frequency

VOD Video on demand

VoB Voice over broadband

VoIP Voice over internet protocol

W-CDMA Wideband code division multiple access

WiMAX Worldwide interoperability for microwave access