The Art Law Review: Brazil
According to The Art Market 2020, the report drawn up by Art Basel and UBS, the global art market reached approximately US$64.1 billion in 2019.2 The situation in Brazil – modest, when compared with other markets – is noteworthy; so much so that the country is mentioned 22 times in the UBS report and makes the top dozen import sources list.3 Also, the sixth edition of the sector report on the primary contemporary art market in Brazil states that antiques and art exports had a turnover of over US$153 million in 2017, which is a high number by Brazilian standards.4
When one speaks of art law in Brazil, it must be acknowledged that over recent years there has been a boom in the country's art market. This was the headline Art News used to address the topic some years ago: 'Boom Time for Brazil's Art Market'. Important newspapers such as the Financial Times, ArtEconomy – Il Sole 24 Ore and Il Giornale dell'Arte have detected this same trend. Such an explosion has occurred in a twofold manner: the specialised press has noted that, on the one hand, Brazil has started consuming more art, and more Brazilian collectors have become part of the first team of international collectors, with a significant presence in fairs, auctions and galleries; on the other hand, more Brazilian artists have become more desirable, exhibited and collected abroad.
In recent years, big galleries such as White Cube, and renowned museums, including the Tate, the Whitney Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and MoMA, have promoted the Brazilian art scene. In addition, Christie's, Sotheby's and Phillips have boosted Brazilian artists – including Os Gêmeos, Vik Muniz, Cildo Meireles, Lygia Pape, Sebastião Salgado, Tarsila do Amaral, Candido Portinari and Ernesto Neto – with auctions in London and New York.
Nonetheless, there are two sides to every coin: Interpol records demonstrate that South America and Brazil have been the origin and destination of illegally traded works of art. A visit to online auction sites, such as eBay and Catawiki, shows the variety and scale of this illicit market, which involves each and every type of artefact that may spark interest in the international market. By way of illustration, the International Council of Museums (Icom) red lists indigenous funerary urns, colonial silverware and baroque religious statuary among the items sought in Latin America.
It is also interesting that the 'FBI Top Ten Art Crimes' lists the robbery at the Chácara do Céu Museum in Rio de Janeiro in 2006 in seventh place. Interpol data also reveal that Brazil ranks 26th on the list of countries with the highest number of stolen cultural objects, and an extremely low recovery percentage rate.
This has had obvious repercussions in the art law world. More books have been published, more events have been held, and we now have podcasts on the topic and art law chairs at universities. Nevertheless, it is true that art law themes have been under discussion in Brazil since the nineteenth century. For instance, in 1870, the Tribuna Artística newspaper, dedicated to discussing, disseminating and defending artists' rights, was in circulation in Rio de Janeiro, and in 1888, important painter Pedro Américo published a book reflecting on plagiarism in painting and literature. Nowadays, the Brazilian art law bibliography totals approximately 30 works, signifying a clear process of maturation.
The year in review
The year 2019 marked the beginning of the presidency of Jair Bolsonaro and the renewal of Congress representatives. On the administrative side, a change that has triggered nationwide backlash has been the extinguishing of the Ministry of Culture, which was absorbed by the Ministry of Citizenship in the form of a Special Secretariat for Culture. At the end of 2019, the Secretariat was integrated into the Ministry of Tourism. A particular point to note in this is that Italy has long had a single administrative structure to handle matters of both tourism and culture. Moreover, the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 9919/2019 and Ordinance No. 1576 of the Ministry of Citizenship – when the Ministry of Culture was still within the said Ministry – which have produced changes in the allocation of funds for national film production, reverberated in the judicial field, leading the Sustainability Network Party and the Federal Prosecution Office to file actions against these rules to eventually obtain a favourable preliminary injunction from the Federal Court of Rio de Janeiro.
Other executive acts have indeed caused much discussion. In Rio de Janeiro, the mayor ordered the seizure of Avengers: The Children's Crusade, a graphic novel portraying a homosexual kiss, at the Book Biennial. The case was taken to the Rio de Janeiro Court of Justice, whose Chief Justice permitted the withdrawal from public display of unsealed LGBT-themed works aimed at children and adolescents, a ruling that was quickly reversed by Brazil's Supreme Court.
In terms of seizure, for the first time an art gallery has been the target of judicial search and seizure warrants due to its close involvement in the money laundering schemes uncovered by anti-corruption efforts, notably the 65th phase of Operation Car Wash.
Lawmakers have passed the Anti-Criminal Package,5 which includes an unprecedented provision in the Brazilian Code of Criminal Procedure that reads as follows: 'In the event of forfeiture of works of art or other goods of relevant cultural or artistic value, if the crime has no determined victim, the goods may be sent to public museums.'
i Title in art
The Brazilian Civil Code (BCC) provides that the ownership of a movable good is only transferred upon the sale of the item (i.e., the item is delivered to the buyer).6 This is the situation for both private sales and auction sales. Pursuant to Article 1268, caput, of the BCC, in the sale of an object carried out by someone other than its owner, ownership cannot be transferred, except if the item, offered to the public at an auction or in a shop, is transferred in circumstances that make the seller, in the eyes of the person who buys in good faith or in the eyes of any one person, appear as the owner. The sale shall not lead to ownership transfer when it derives from a null title.7
Possession is in good faith 'if the possessor does not know the defect or obstacle which impedes the acquisition of the thing';8 a condition that is only lost if (and when) concrete circumstances presume that the possessor knows that he or she possesses the object unduly.9 Presuming good faith is a general principle: good faith is presumed; bad faith must be proven.
The BCC also states that, if an artist works on raw material that belongs to someone else, the painting, sculpture or writing eventually produced will belong to the artist if its value considerably exceeds that of the raw material.10
ii Nazi-looted art and cultural property
There is no rule in Brazilian domestic law that specifically refers to the return of works of art and cultural objects stolen by the Nazi regime, nor to acquisitive prescription in relation to objects confiscated by the Nazis.
In the late 1940s, like many countries in Latin America, Brazil was a common destination for fleeing Nazis, persecuted Jews and for works of art expropriated by the Nazis during the Second World War. Today, some Brazilian collections are the target of legal complaints by Jewish families from Europe and the United States.
Brazil's former President Fernando Henrique Cardoso even created the Special Commission for the Determination of Nazi Assets, by a decree of 7 April 1997.
In addition to being a signatory to the Icom Code of Ethics, Brazil took part in the 1998 Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets.
iii Limitation periods
In general, the limitation period is 10 years, if no shorter term has been set by the law.11
With regard to acquisitive prescription upon movable property in general, the BCC sets forth that whoever possesses a movable object as theirs, in a continuous and unchallenged manner for three years, in good faith and with good title, shall acquire ownership of the item.12 However, if the possession of the movable object extends for five years, there shall be acquisitive prescription, regardless of analysis of good faith or title.13
iv Alternative dispute resolution
The 2015 Brazilian Code of Civil Procedure (BCCP) sets forth that the state, whenever possible, shall promote the consensual resolution of controversies, which shall be actioned by private lawyers, judges, prosecutors and public defenders participating in the course of the judicial process.14 Arbitration has its own legislation: Law No. 9307 of 1996. In spite of this, there are no legal provisions specifically related to alternative dispute resolution of art disputes, nor there is a court in Brazil that specifically handles these disputes.
Brazil is a signatory to the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. In fact, in an increasingly globalised art market, where disputes are increasingly transnational, this is a major plus point.
In April 2019, the Court of Arbitration for Art was inaugurated in Rotterdam as the first international court dedicated to the settlement of art disputes. Initially contributing only one arbitrator, Brazil is now represented in the court by eight arbitrators.
Fakes, forgeries and authentication
In Brazilian law, the civil liability for expert opinions is subjective; that is, it depends on the demonstration of fault – negligence, imprudence or malpractice or intent. An expert acting as an independent professional may fall within the scope of Article 14, Paragraph 4 of the Brazilian Consumer Defence Code (BCDC),15 which prescribes that 'the personal liability of independent professionals shall be determined through the verification of fault'. As for artists' foundations and catalogue raisonnés authors, it seems that, by analogy, they are also subjectively liable. The case law on the matter is scant, and there are no legal provisions that specifically address this thorny problem.
As a general rule, the seller of works of art is also held subjectively liable, and the sale of a work that subsequently raises questions about its authenticity or real authorship may be cancelled on the basis of a substantial error. According to Article 139 of the BCC, the error is considered to be substantial when, in addition to other situations, 'it is relevant to the nature of the transaction, to the main object of the declaration, or to some quality essential to it'.
If the seller qualifies as a dealer, a consumer relationship occurs, demanding the application of the BCDC. It seems that the issue regarding the authenticity or authorship of a work of art – a work sold as being authentic but, in fact, a fake, or a work presented as having certain characteristics of authorship but, in fact, having different characteristics to those advertised – may fall within the scope of defect of the product, for which the dealer is held objectively liable; that is, regardless of fault.
In relation to the auctioneer, Article 68 of Normative Instruction No. 72 of 2019 of the National Department of Commercial Registration and Integration, states that '[the] auctioneer is liable for the acts which, in the exercise of the profession, he or she carries out with intent ('dolus') or fault'.
Furthermore, regrettably, in Brazilian law there is no specific provision of the crime of forgery of a work of art. Article 189 of the Criminal Code only deals with the conduct of violating copyright and connected rights, without directly addressing art forgery. In August 2020, federal representative Felício Laterça (Social Liberal Party – Rio de Janeiro) presented to Congress Draft Bill No. 4293/20, which seeks to insert Article 62-A into Law No. 9605/1998, imposing the penalty of imprisonment of one to three years plus a fine to whoever forges a signature in a work of art.
i Private sales and auctions
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods entered into force in Brazil on 1 April 2014.
For contracts regulated by Brazilian law, the BCC encompasses two key principles: objective good faith and social function of the contract. Pursuant to Article 422 of the BCC 'contractors are obliged to keep the principles of probity and good faith both in the conclusion of the contract and in its execution'. As for the social function of the contract, Article 421 states that 'contractual freedom shall be exercised within the limits of the social function of the contract' and that 'the principle of minimal intervention and the exceptionality of contractual revision shall prevail in private contractual relationships'.
In the sphere of contractual principles, private sales are, in general, governed by Articles 481 to 532 of the BCC. Nevertheless, if a consumer relationship is present, as when a work is purchased from a gallery, for instance, the sale will be regulated by the BCDC, which is an undeniably advanced piece of legislation that recognises various consumer rights.
Auctions are primarily governed by the legally binding Decree No. 21981 of 1932, which regulates the auctioneer profession. Normative Instruction No. 72 of 2019, of the National Department of Commercial Registration and Integration, also exerts its influence over the matter.
Depending on the specific case, the BCC or the BCDC may apply to the auction sale, as stated by the Superior Court of Justice in the following: 'The BCDC's protection to the public sale promoted by the auctioneer depends on the type of trade that is practised. If it comes to the sale of goods from individuals, collectors, etc. to producers or collectors and individuals, such as the sale of artworks, family jewellery, estate goods and even livestock, BCC rules apply.'16
With regard to distance sales in the art market, be they private sales or auction sales, either the BCC or the BCDC may apply, according to the specific case. It should be highlighted that, in Brazil important rules apply to the digital environment, with special attention to the Brazilian Civil Rights Framework for the Internet (Law No. 12965 of 2014), the General Law on the Protection of Personal Data (Law No. 13709 of 2018) and Decree No. 7962 of 2013 on contracting in electronic commerce in the situations in which the BCDC applies.
Judicial auctions find their regulation in Articles 879 to 903 of the BCCP; particularly Article 882, whose caput sets forth that the auction shall be held in person if it cannot be held electronically. From 21 September 2020 to 2 October 2020, an auction was held to dispose of works belonging to the insolvent Banco Santos estate. The sales included multiple works by artists such as Tarsila do Amaral, Cildo Meireles, Frank Stella, Zhang Linhai and Man Ray, and were held online.
ii Art loans
Significant loans were involved in the great art exhibitions Brazil hosted in 2019. The 'Tarsila Popular' exhibition, for instance, at the São Paulo Museum of Art (Masp), presented works by Tarsila do Amaral belonging to private collections and institutions from various countries, such as Brazil itself, Spain, France, Russia and Argentina, with particular attention to Abaporu,17 an oil on canvas owned by the Buenos Aires Latin-American Art Museum and deemed to be the artist's masterpiece. The Masp has announced plans to hold an exhibition of works by Vincent van Gogh in 2025 – a five-year advance booking is necessary for loans of works by an artist of the calibre of the Dutch master.18
Despite this scenario, Brazilian law has no rules concerning immunity from suit or seizure for artworks and collections on loan.
iii Cross-border transactions
The regulation of the export of cultural objects in Brazil comprises a broad and diverse set of rules. First, the country is a signatory to the UNESCO 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property and to the UNIDROIT 1995 Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects.
Domestic regulation of the circulation of cultural objects highlights that listed goods may only leave Brazilian territory for a short term and for cultural exchange purposes, and that a temporary leave shall not imply any transfer of ownership.19
Law No. 4845 of 1965 prohibits the definitive export of any artworks and traditional crafts produced prior to the end of the monarchical period, that is, up to 1889, covering drawings, engravings, sculptures, paintings, architectural elements, carved works, furniture, imagery and jewellery, among others.20 The same applies to 'works of the same sort coming from Portugal and incorporated into the national environment during the colonial and imperial regimes'.21 Furthermore, the definitive export of sculptures, paintings and graphic artwork that, although produced abroad during the colonial and imperial periods, represent Brazilian culture, are related to the history of Brazil or are connected to the country's landscapes and customs, is forbidden.22 The attempt to definitively export any of these objects shall result in their sequestration by the federal administration or by the state where they are located, for the benefit of their respective museums.23
Nevertheless, Article 4 of the Law exceptionally permits the export from Brazil of some works, provided this is for cultural exchange and temporary exhibition purposes, with the express authorisation from the competent body of the federal administration, which shall state the deadline for the objects to return to national territory.
In addition, Article 1 of Law No. 5471 of 1968 prohibits the definitive export of libraries and collections of documents made up of Brazilian works edited from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, as well as parts or individual items of collections of works and documents; the Law also covers newspaper collections that are at least 10 years old, and original and ancient copies of sheet music.
Moreover, Article 20 of Law No. 3924 of 1961 states that 'no object which presents archaeological or prehistorical, numismatic or artistic interest shall be transferred abroad, without an express licence' from the Institute of National Historic and Artistic Heritage (Iphan), as a permit that specifies the objects to be exported. Failure to comply with the said provision shall result in the summary seizure of the object in question and its delivery to Iphan, notwithstanding other legal sanctions.24
With regard to the international art trade specifically, anyone wishing to import or export artworks shall initially register themselves with the Radar System (a system for registering and tracking customs agents' activities), controlled by the Federal Revenue Service (FRS).25 Following this registration, they must register with the Siscomex (an electronic integrated trade system, also administered by the FRS); only after these conditions are met shall they be free to take part in foreign trade.26
For definitive export, the packing list, air waybill (AWB) and Iphan's permit to export the item are generally required, along with other documents, and details of the domestic and international means of transport, the packaging, collection, storage and insurance.27 In this type of export, when works are sold abroad, only income tax applies.28
For definitive import, the following taxes apply: import tax and tax on industrialised goods and social contributions – social integration programme and contribution for social security financing – all of which are federal taxes; tax on the circulation of goods and services, at state level; and the storage tariff at the airport or port where the work has been unloaded.29 The value of each of these taxes influences the calculation basis of the next, and insurance and freight charges are included in the calculation of the storage tariff as well as the taxes.30 For definitive import, the packing list, AWB, commercial invoice and other documents are generally required, in addition to details of the domestic and international means of transport, packaging, collection, storage and insurance.31
Trade operations involving internationally acquired art, in turn, enjoy the exemption of most taxes that apply as a general rule to internal transactions, be they federal taxes or taxes charged at the state level, in a way that the taxation applied will depend on the nature of the agent involved, whether that is a natural person or a legal person.32
In conclusion, it is relevant to discuss choice of law. In the words of Article 8, caput, of the Introductory Law to the Rules of Brazilian Law, applicable to immovable property and to movable property of permanent location, thus consecrating the general lex rei sitae rule,33 'in order to qualify the good and to regulate the situations which concern them, the law of the country where they are located shall be applied'. On the other hand, in relation to movable property without a permanent location, such as movable goods in transit or those of the traveller's personal use34 – the law of the country where the owner resides shall be applied.35
iv Art finance
Over the years, the Brazilian state has created tax incentive legislation for the cultural sector, whose pinnacle is Law No. 8313 of 1991 (the Federal Law for Cultural Incentive, popularly referred to as the Rouanet Law).36 This Act makes it possible for natural and legal persons to sponsor various cultural projects – a public work of art, exhibition, fair, festival, production and printing of books or catalogues or creation or works – and deduct part or the total amount of the financial support given from what is due as income tax.37 In addition to the Rouanet Law, applicable at federal level, there are laws for cultural incentive in states and municipalities that follow the same tax-deduction system.38
Financial support may also take the form of contests, notices and awards 'promoted by the government as well as by private institutions and even companies [that can] publicly . . . take submission of projects and proposals' set forth by artists.39 This must all be carried out with the utmost transparency, a value that is crucial to the art market, contributing to the fight against laundering money and financing terrorism. In this context, Law No. 9613 of 1998 takes a prominent position. Indeed, this Act requires natural and legal persons from various economic and financial sectors – including 'natural or legal persons who trade jewellery, precious stones and metals, art objects and antiques'40 – to comply with customer identification duties and keep customer records updated, among other obligations.41
Iphan Ordinance No. 396 of 2016 on proceedings to be observed by private dealers – whether natural or legal persons – of antiques or works of art of any nature, or both, is another relevant text on the subject matter.42 In addition, Iphan maintains the National Register of Art and Antiques Dealers.
Law No. 13608 of 2018 introduced the concept of whistle-blower, which 'may serve as an instrument for reporting crimes within the international and national art market, to eventually reduce the risks to which this trade is subject'.43
In August 2019, federal representative Denis Bezerra (Brazilian Socialist Party – Ceará) presented a draft bill to Congress, making compulsory the public registration of artworks, pedigree animals and jewellery exceeding 25,000 reais in value, with a notary public.
i Moral rights
Irrevocable and inalienable moral rights44 are listed in Article 24, caput, of Law No. 9610 of 1998 (the Copyright Law). The main right – the right to integrity – is enshrined in item IV: 'The author's moral rights are: . . . to ensure the integrity of the work, opposing any modifications or the practice of acts that, in any way, may harm the work or affect him or her, as an author, in their reputation or honour.' Brazil is also a signatory to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
By virtue of the artist's death, the right to integrity and some other moral rights are transferred to the artist's heirs.45
ii Resale rights
Resale rights are inscribed in Article 38 of the Copyright Law. According to that provision, the author has the inalienable and irrevocable right to be paid at least 5 per cent of any gain in value that may occur each time one of his or her works of art or manuscripts is resold. If the author is not paid the resale rights at the time of resale, the seller is considered to be the depositary of the amount owed to the artist, except if the transaction is made by an auctioneer, in which case the auctioneer shall be the depositary of the amount.
iii Economic rights
In the words of Article 28 of the Copyright Law, 'the author has the exclusive right to use, enjoy and dispose of the literary, artistic or scientific work', in such a way that the subsequent Article sets forth that the author's prior and express authorisation is necessary for the use of the work to be possible, under any form, including: full or partial reproduction; editions; translation; adaptation, musical arrangement and any other transformation; inclusion in audiovisual productions or phonograms; and distribution, when it is not inherent in the contract concluded by the author with third parties for use or exploitation of the work.
Economic rights run for 70 years, counted from 1 January of the year following that of the artist's death, obeying the succession order set forth in civil legislation.46 After that time, the work falls into the public domain.
Trusts, foundations and estates
Even though Brazilian law provides for various types of fiduciary contract, there is no legal mechanism in the country identifiable as a trust.47 Nonetheless, a trust set up abroad may have some effects in Brazil.48
In Brazil, private foundations are specifically regulated by the BCC,49 the BCCP50 and the Law on Public Registries.51 Once certain requirements are met, private foundations may enjoy tax incentives.52
Law No. 13800 of 2019 introduced the concept of endowment funds in Brazil. These 'funds may support institutions related to education, science, technology, research and innovation, culture, health, environment, social assistance, sports, public security, human rights and other public interest purposes'.53
Estate planning may be carried out by setting up a family holding company.54 As the holding company is usually formed when the property's owner is still alive, by developing an organisational structure to make administrative adjustments and to avoid the transfer of administration to someone fit to perform this, the tax incidence is reduced.55 Moreover, the deviser may impose the restrictive clause of inalienability on the assets of the holding company, from which the clauses of unseizability and incommunicability (which prevents the patrimony from being shared with the holder's spouse or partner) automatically apply.56 This scenario proves to be powerful for the protection of art collections, notably against their dispersal and transmission to a bad manager.
Outlook and conclusions
There exists no risk-free society. Perils are of the most diverse types and may affect everyone and everything, and works of art are no exception. From climate change to war, from thefts to fires, from domestic and transportation accidents to earthquakes – all of these, and much more, pose a threat to artworks. The unique nature of such objects demands the adoption of a proactive attitude. In that respect, art insurance – although not new – should clearly be encouraged and more widely used. Brazil has sadly seen fires rage in cultural institutions on at least a handful of occasions.
Such disasters and the scarcity of public resources for culture require creative solutions; art insurance is surely one of them.57 Another interesting initiative for the art market is a security house – the first of which in Brazil has been recently set up in São Paulo – which is a rental system of insured private safes that serve to protect works of art confidentially.
1 Marcílio Toscano Franca Filho is a professor at the Federal University of Paraíba School of Law and Gustavo Tanouss de Miranda Moreira is a researcher at the International Laboratory of Investigations into Transjuridicity.
2 Clare McAndrew, The Art Market 2020, Basel, Zurich: Art Basel & UBS, 2020, pp. 17, 23.
3 id., p. 50.
4 ABACT, ApexBrasil and Latitude, Pesquisa Setorial – O Mercado de Arte Contemporânea no Brasil, Sixth Edition, December 2018.
5 Law No. 13964/2019.
6 Articles 1267, caput, and 1226 of the Brazilian Civil Code (BCC).
7 id., Article 1268, Paragraph 2.
8 id., Article 1201, caput.
9 id., Article 1202.
10 id., Article 1270, Paragraph 2.
11 id., Article 205.
12 id., Article 1260.
13 id., Article 1261.
14 Article 3, Paragraphs 2 and 3, of the Brazilian Code of Civil Procedure.
15 Law No. 8078 of 1990.
16 Brazil Superior Tribunal of Justice, Special Appeal No. 1.234.972 – RJ (2011/0025423-8), 2015, www.conjur.com.br/dl/voto-relator-leilao-incompleto.pdf, accessed 9 September 2020.
17 'Exposição “Tarsila Popular” chega ao fim e conquista maior público dos últimos 20 anos do MASP', Jovem Pan, 29 July 2019, https://jovempan.com.br/programas/jornal-da-manha/exposicao-tarsila-popular-chega-ao-fim-e-conquista-maior-publico-dos-ultimos-20-anos-do-masp.html, accessed 8 September 2020.
18 Tatiane de Assis, 'Masp prepara mostra com obras de Van Gogh', Veja São Paulo, 29 November 2019, https://vejasp.abril.com.br/blog/arte-ao-redor/masp-prepara-mostra-com-obras-de-van-gogh, accessed 8 September 2020.
19 Article 14 of Decree-Law No. 25/37. Temporary leave is also reasonable in exceptional cases such as restoration or expert investigation.
20 Article 1 of Law No. 4845/1965.
21 id., Article 2.
22 id., Article 3.
23 id., Article 5.
24 Article 21 of Law No. 3924/1961.
25 Ministry of Culture and UNESCO, Visual Artist's Guide: insertion and internationalisation, 2018, p. 149.
26 id., pp. 149–150.
27 id., pp. 150–151.
28 id., p. 150.
29 id., p. 158.
32 id., p. 164.
33 André de Carvalho Ramos, Curso de direito internacional privado, São Paulo: Saraiva Educação, 2018, pp. 390–391.
34 id., p. 391.
35 Article 8, Paragraph 1, of the Introductory Law to the Rules of Brazilian Law.
36 Ministry of Culture and UNESCO (footnote 25), p. 25.
38 Ministry of Culture and UNESCO (footnote 25), p. 26.
39 id., p. 19.
40 Article 9, sole paragraph, XI, of Law No. 9613 of 1998.
41 id., Articles 10 and 11; Marcílio Toscano Franca Filho, Matheus Costa do Vale, Nathálya Lins da Silva, 'Mercado de arte, integridade e due diligence no Brasil e no MERCOSUL Cultural', Revista da Secretaria do Tribunal Permanente de Revisão do MERCOSUL, Vol. 7, No. 14, August 2019, pp. 270–271.
42 Anauene Dias Soares, Direito internacional do patrimônio cultural: o tráfico ilícito de bens culturais, Fortaleza: IBDCult, 2018, p. 126.
43 Franca Filho, Vale and Silva (footnote 41), p. 275.
44 Article 27 of Law No. 9610/1998.
45 id., Article 24, Paragraph 1.
46 Article 41, caput, of Law No. 9610/1998.
47 Cláudio Finkelstein, 'O trust e o direito brasileiro', Revista de Direito Bancário e do Mercado de Capitais, Vol. 72, April/June 2016, www.mpsp.mp.br/portal/page/portal/documentacao_e_divulgacao/doc_biblioteca/bibli_servicos_produtos/bibli_boletim/bibli_bol_2006/RDBancMecCap_n.72.06.PDF, p. 3, accessed 22 September 2020.
48 See id., pp. 3–4.
49 Articles 62–69.
50 Articles 764 and 765.
51 Articles 114–121.
52 Article 15, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of Law No. 9532/1997.
53 Article 1 of Law No. 13800/2019.
54 Cristiano Chaves de Farias and Nelson Rosenvald, Curso de Direito Civil: Sucessões, Third Edition. Salvador: JusPodivm, 2017, p. 84.
55 id., p. 85.
56 id.; Article 1.911 of the BCC.
57 Marcílio Toscano Franca Filho and Gustavo Tanouss, 'O risco sobre os riscos que riscamos', Jota, 15 December 2019, www.jota.info/paywall?redirect_to=//www.jota.info/opiniao-e -analise/artigos/o-risco-sobre-os-riscos-que-riscamos-15122019, accessed 28 September 2020.