The Banking Regulation Review: Mexico


The banking system is regulated by four main governmental agencies: the Bank of Mexico (Banxico) as the Mexican central bank, the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) as the ministry within the executive branch in charge of regulating financial institutions, the National Banking and Securities Commission (CNBV) as an agency that directly depends on the SHCP and the Financial Consumer Protection Commission (Condusef).

As at December 2021, the Mexican banking market was composed of 50 retail banking institutions, the same number as the previous year – however, BNP Paribas México started operations in May 2021, and the banking licence granted to Accendo Banco was revoked in September 2021 – six development banks and 23 financial groups.2 The five largest retail banking institutions in the market, based on the amount of assets, resources collected from the public at large and participation in loan portfolios, were BBVA México, Santander, Citibanamex, Banorte and HSBC, respectively.3

In September 2021, Accendo Banco had its licence revoked for not having the required mandatory capitalisation reserves or liquidity coverage ratio, as well as due to capital accounting deficiencies in such regard; Accendo Banco is currently undergoing liquidation. In addition, in January 2022, Citibanamex announced its intention to sell and leave its consumer banking and corporate banking businesses in Mexico. Such sale process will begin in the coming months. The manner and terms under which the exit and sale of such businesses in Mexico will take place will be determined by Citibanamex, and will be aligned with the objective of maximising value for its shareholders and strengthening the businesses that Citibanamex will sell as well as those that it will retain. The exit process is subject to several legal conditions and approvals, including applicable regulatory approvals.4

In 2021 seven bank institutions were fined by the Federal Antitrust Commission following an investigation into monopolistic practices and the altering of prices in the brokerage market of government-issued debt securities. Those illegal practices were carried out between 2010 and 2013. The total fine amount was of US$7.7 million. Deutsche Bank and Barclays Bank received the largest fines of US$433,406 and US$316,336, respectively. The other bank institutions fined were Santander, Banamex, Bank of America, BBVA Bancomer, JP Morgan and 11 individuals and traders.5

At the end of December 2020, the President introduced a bill to amend the Bank of Mexico Law, which would force Banxico to purchase foreign currencies that banks cannot repatriate. However, this bill has been heavily criticised by the Mexican Banks' Association, as well as Banxico itself, stating that the Mexican economy could be adversely affected if it is approved. During 2021, this bill lost its priority status within the legislature: it was not discussed, modified or approved by the house of representatives within the 2021 parliamentary term.

The regulatory regime applicable to banks

Banxico is governed by the Bank of Mexico Law. Banxico's primary activities consist of:

  1. directing monetary policy and controlling inflation;
  2. financing the federal government;
  3. minting coins and issuing bills; and
  4. regulating intermediation and financial services.

Banxico accomplishes these tasks, in part, by establishing the required characteristics for financial transactions (e.g., mandatory rates, terms, interest and financial costs, among others).

Banxico issues general provisions and regulations that are applicable to financial institutions, issuers of securities, intermediaries and the public at large. It also has the authority to sanction entities and individuals that do not comply with those regulations. Banxico regulates certain aspects of banks as they relate to payment systems and derivatives, among others.

The SHCP is a ministry of the Federal Public Administration. It evaluates, surveys, promotes and organises financial services rendered by banking and non-banking agents. Through its separate agencies, including the CNBV and the Insurance and Bonds National Commission, the SHCP evaluates and surveys banks, bonding and insurance companies, brokerage houses and all other entities within the financial system.

The SHCP has the authority to issue rules to develop the provisions of the Credit Institutions Law (LIC), which is the main body of law governing banks and their transactions, including the general rules applicable to credit institutions issued by the CNBV. One of the main functions of the SHCP is to issue anti-money laundering rules.

The CNBV is in charge of granting authorisations, and inspecting and surveying all financial activities, transactions and entities; it also acts as an enforcement body for those entities under its surveillance. All financial activities, which nowadays also include fintechs, are mainly coordinated and regulated by the CNBV; as such, it can be considered the most important government agency for such matters.

Authorisations to undertake banking and other regulated financial activities will commonly have to be filed with, inter alia, the SHCP, Banxico and the CNBV, but the authorisation is ultimately issued by the CNBV.

In addition to the LIC as the main body of banking law, there are two additional regulations that are of importance for banking institutions: the general rules applicable to banks issued by the CNBV6 and Circular 3/2012 issued by Banxico (provisions applicable to transactions of credit institutions and rural financial institutions).

Condusef is another regulatory agency in charge of the surveillance and regulation of banks, but from a consumer protection standpoint. Condusef is in charge of regulating the marketing and offering of services by financial institutions to the public at large, and as the registry of adhesion form contracts. It also serves as a mediator of disputes between financial consumers and financial institutions.

Retail banking institutions must be incorporated as corporations under Mexican law,7 their by-laws must be approved beforehand by the CNBV and the authorisation for their incorporation must be published in the Federal Official Gazette. Mexican law provides the opportunity to incorporate fully fledged retail banks or niche retail banks, depending on the activities that they intend to perform; hence, the minimum capital stock and reserve requirements vary according to the kind of bank.

The capital structure of banks also varies based on whether a foreign financial institution owns 51 per cent or more of the capital stock. A bank whose capital stock is owned by a foreign financial institution is called an affiliate banking institution. To form one of these entities, a bilateral international treaty must exist between Mexico and the country where the holding entity resides.

Affiliate banking institutions' capital stock is composed of Series F and Series B shares. The former may be acquired only by a foreign bank or a foreign controlling entity, and shall not be lower than 51 per cent. Series B shares may be freely subscribed and grant limited voting rights.

The capital stock of retail banks that are not affiliate banking institutions is composed of Series O and Series L shares: Series O shares are common shares and may be freely subscribed; Series L shares, which may represent up to 40 per cent of the issued shares, may also be freely subscribed and have limited voting rights.

Finally, development banks are decentralised agencies of the federal government known as national credit companies, which may perform credit operations in the same way as retail banks. However, their purpose is to render services for the development of specific segments of the national economy, promoting, for instance, foreign commerce or the development of public works, and to offer financial services to promote innovation, boost environmental sustainability and promote the financial inclusion of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and small rural producers.

Prudential regulation

i Relationship with the prudential regulator

The CNBV may be considered as the Mexican equivalent to the Financial Services Authority of the United Kingdom, and a mixture of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the state banking commissions from the federal reserve banks and the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States. The CNBV is the regulator in charge of oversight, and the control body of the banking, financial and securities systems in Mexico, and is considered the main prudential regulator.

The SHCP is also one of the main regulators in the banking system. Its main responsibilities are:

  1. the issuance of general rules;
  2. control of financial policies;
  3. budget control;
  4. administrative control; and
  5. granting authorisations for specific activities.

Regarding the control of financial policies, the SHCP is entitled to plan, coordinate, evaluate and oversee the country's banking system, including Banxico, retail banks, development banks, financial groups and any other institution that performs credit and banking activities. This control over financial policies includes insurance, securities, surety bonds and credit ancillary activities.

Banxico's main activities are those of a regular central bank, namely:

  1. maintaining the stability and supply of the currency;
  2. the control and prudential regulation of the financial system;
  3. acting as lender of last resort;
  4. modulation of the public debt; and
  5. coordination of the payment systems.

Additionally, with the CNBV and the SHCP, Banxico has the authority to issue general rules. Among all the authorities granted to Banxico, we highlight the strengthening and development of the financial system, which include:

  1. operating with credit institutions as reserve bank and lender of last resort;
  2. granting loans to credit institutions and the federal government;
  3. determining the characteristics of lending, deposit and services activities by credit institutions as well as securities and derivatives transactions;
  4. setting limits on lending and deposit transactions to control the risk of banking institutions;
  5. requesting periodic reports and information regarding financial entities' activities and results; and
  6. issuing an opinion regarding:
    • any application for an authorisation to act as a retail banking institution;
    • acquisitions of more than 5 per cent of ordinary shares from retail banking institutions, including subsidiary institutions from foreign entities;
    • mergers or spin-offs of retail banks;
    • the establishment of foreign financial entities' subsidiaries as retail banks;
    • financial entities' capitalisation thresholds;
    • ratings of credit portfolios;
    • support documentation for lending, services and deposit transactions; and
    • the integration of reserve funds corresponding to credit ratings for prudential, solvency and stability purposes.

Banxico is also able to impose sanctions on financial entities and request the performance of audits and inspection visits to such entities.

ii Management of banks

Management of banks is entrusted to three main bodies. The first is the board of directors, followed by the chief executive officer (CEO) and, lastly, an audit committee that is directly accountable to the board of directors. The board of directors is composed of five to 15 members, who are elected by the shareholders, of which 25 per cent must be independent members and the majority must reside in Mexico. It shall hold meetings at least quarterly. These will be valid when 51 per cent of the members of the board are present: of those members, at least one must be an independent member. The members of the board must fulfil certain requirements regarding experience, reputation, ethics and knowledge.

The board of directors is the body in charge of performing and approving all actions required to fulfil the bank's purpose (with the sole exception of those expressly reserved for the shareholders' meeting); it has all the necessary powers and authority to represent the bank and lead its business.

A statutory audit committee is also required, which shall be composed of at least two statutory auditors, one appointed by the ordinary series of shares (Series O and Series F) and the other by the limited series of shares (Series L and Series B). This committee is in charge of:

  1. requesting monthly reports from the board of directors, including a financial situation statement and a results statement;
  2. examining the operations, documentation, registry and any other evidence to the extent necessary to oversee the operations; and
  3. filing an annual report to the shareholders' meeting regarding the truthfulness, sufficiency and rationale of the information delivered by the board to the shareholders' meeting, in which the opinions of the members of this committee regarding accounting and information policies and the sufficiency and adequacy of certain criteria are included.

The CEO must be an individual who resides in Mexico for tax purposes, with a recognised moral reputation and at least five years' experience in senior decision-making positions. The CNBV has the authority to remove any officer in the event that he or she does not comply with these requirements or ceases to comply with them. The CEO is in charge of the elaboration and presentation of policies for the correct application and utilisation of the human and material resources of the entity, including the consideration of their efficient use, restrictions on misuse, oversight and control mechanisms.

The audit committee is the body entitled to follow up on the internal and external audit processes of the institution, as well as with the internal comptroller. It ensures that accounting and financial information is generated in accordance with the applicable requirements and accounting principles.

The members of this committee are selected for their aptitude and professional reputation. The committee shall be composed of at least three and no more than five members, one of whom must be an independent member and shall act as chair. Mexican law also requires there to be a secretary, who may or may not be a member of the committee, and who will be entitled to keep all minutes and records. Meetings shall take place at least four times a year, and their resolutions will be validly adopted if approved by the majority, provided that the chair, or his or her deputy, attends the meeting. Employees and officers of banking institutions are not allowed to be part of this committee.

The committee's main activities consist of proposing to the board of directors an internal control system for the operations of the institution, and its supervision. The control system shall include:

  1. policies concerning the organisational structure of the bank;
  2. communication channels and information flow mechanisms;
  3. general operating policies;
  4. a business continuity plan; and
  5. control measures for the correct approval, processing and registration of the bank's transactions.

In addition to the aforementioned management and surveillance bodies, banking institutions shall incorporate other types of subcommittees, such as a corporate banking credit committee, internal credit committee, risks committee, human resources and institutional development committee, and compensation committee.

Mexican banking law contemplates two types of compensation for officers and employees: ordinary and extraordinary. Ordinary compensation is salary, benefits and fixed remunerations, and extraordinary compensation covers all types of variable compensations based on results. The compensation committee is the body in charge of overseeing the compliance of these compensations with Mexican law by means of a compensation system that must be implemented and cover all policies and proceedings determined by the bank to comply with the CNBV's general rules with respect to risk management. Mexican laws and regulations do not limit the compensation of banking officers and employees.

iii Regulatory capital and liquidity

Regulatory capital for fully fledged retail banks is 90 million investment units (UDIs)8 (currently, this is around 645 million Mexican pesos) and, for the smallest niche retail banks, 36 million UDIs (currently around 258 million Mexican pesos). The regulatory minimum capitalisation index for Mexican banks is, as per Basel III, currently 8 per cent. Each of the 50 retail banking institutions in Mexico has a higher capitalisation index than the minimum required; thus, all banks are qualified by the CNBV under the highest category, with the overall capitalisation index for the Mexican banking system being 19.37 per cent.9 For example, as at December 2021, HSBC, one of the retail banking institutions with a lower capitalisation index percentage, had a capitalisation index of 13.68 per cent; and BBVA México, which is the biggest bank in Mexico, reached a capitalisation index of 19.07 per cent. Conversely, the capitalisation indexes of BNP Paribas México, Deutsche Bank, Mizuho Bank and Pagatodo, a local bank, were 130.10, 244.42, 104.30 and 245.03 per cent, respectively.10

Retail banks' capital, as in most of the world, is divided into Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital, each with their particularities:

  1. Tier 1 capital, or basic capital, includes capital stock, capital reserves and undistributed profits. It is divided into core Tier 1 capital or basic capital 1, which is paid capital plus earned capital and includes profits, reserves and valuations, and has a minimum capitalisation index of 4.5 per cent; and Tier 1 or basic capital 2, which is composed of regular capital stock plus capital increases that have not been formalised, plus all capitalisation instruments less subordinated debt, share investments, pending reserves and others, and has a minimum capitalisation index of 6 per cent;
  2. Tier 2 capital, or supplementary capital, finances the bank's activities. It is composed of capitalisation instruments that exceed the basic capital, such as preferred and convertible shares, subordinated debt, debt convertible into shares and a part of the reserves for non-recoverable credits;
  3. net capital: the sum of Tier 1 and Tier 2; and
  4. capital supplements, the additional margin that each bank shall contribute to operate with a positive margin promoted by the regulators.

As a consequence of Basel III, Mexico has implemented requirements regarding capital instruments (subordinated debentures). The first requirement is that either the issuer or the controlling entity of the corporate group be listed in the Mexican Stock Exchange. The second is that these instruments shall have one of the following features: convertibility of the principal amount of the subordinated debentures into equity or a reduction in the principal value of the debentures. The convertibility or reduction in the debentures value shall be triggered, regarding the instruments corresponding to basic capital 2, when the ratio of basic capital 1 reaches a value of 6 per cent with respect to the assets subject to the risk. For debentures subject to the supplementary capital, these shall be converted when they reach a value of 4.5 per cent of basic capital 1 with respect to the assets subject to the risk. Hence, the banks may timely absorb any losses, improving solvency in difficult scenarios and before governmental intervention.

Financial groups are regulated under Mexican law by a specific law, the Law Regulating Financial Groups, and specific general rules issued by the CNBV. The regulating groups are supervised by the same governmental agencies as regular retail banking institutions; holding companies of financial groups have a specific treatment that differs from their subsidiaries; and these groups may be composed of different types of financial entities, including non-bank financial institutions or even real estate managing corporations.

iv Recovery and resolution

Mexican law establishes two types of early warnings for banking institutions facing solvency or capital problems: minimum measures and additional measures applied discretionally by the CNBV.

Banking institutions may be classified into five groups, according to their capitalisation index:

  1. Level I: institutions whose capitalisation index is higher than 10.5 per cent;
  2. Level II: institutions that have a capitalisation index equal to or higher than 8 per cent;
  3. Level III: banks that have a capitalisation index equal to or higher than 7 per cent;
  4. Level IV: institutions with a capitalisation index equal to or higher than 4.5 per cent; and
  5. Level V: institutions with a capitalisation below 4.5 per cent.

Minimum measures have three levels:

  1. the first level is triggered when a banking institution is downgraded to Level II as per its capitalisation index. In that event, the institution would have to:
    • deliver a detailed evaluation report of the reasons for its financial situation;
    • not engage in any transaction that may put its capitalisation index below the minimum requirement;
    • file a capital conservation plan with the regulator;
    • partly restrict dividend payments, compensation and extraordinary bonus; and
    • refrain from increasing financing to relevant related persons;
  2. at the second level, if downgraded further to Level III, the bank would have to:
    • deliver a capital restoration plan;
    • suspend dividend payments;
    • suspend any repurchase programmes for its own shares;
    • defer interest and principal payment of subordinated debentures or convert them early into shares; and
    • suspend the payment of compensation and extraordinary bonus; and
  3. at the third and last level, when it reaches Level IV or V, the entity will not be allowed to make new investments in non-financial assets, open branches or engage in any new activity distinct from its regular transactions.

Additional measures also have three different levels, based on the capitalisation index groups:

  1. for capitalisation Level II:
    • the banking institution must deliver a detailed report regarding the manner and terms under which it will manage the assets subject to total risks and the strategy to follow to strengthen its capitalisation index;
    • for retail banking entities controlled by foreign financial institutions, the above-mentioned report must be delivered to the highest-ranking officer of such area in the foreign financial institution;
    • the institution must retain specialised external auditors for special audits; and
    • it must minimise the effects of transactions entered into with entities of the same corporate group that carry a monetary benefit transfer; and
  2. for Level III, the banking institution must:
    • not increase salaries or benefits to any employee (including officers);
    • limit the execution of new transactions that may affect its capitalisation index; and
    • not execute transactions with entities of the same corporate group; and
    • for Levels IV and V, the banking institution must:
    • substitute officers, members of the board, statutory auditors or external auditors;
    • reduce its risk exposure; and
    • modify policies regarding interest rates paid over deposits that are over the regular risk level assumed by the entity.

The law also contemplates a management intervention, which is triggered as a consequence of:

  1. downgrades of a banking institution's index capitalisation level within one month, and not remedying it within one business day;
  2. the institution putting itself in a situation that is cause for revocation of its banking authorisation; or
  3. the institution defaulting on any of its primary payment obligations, and the banking stability committee of the federal government determining that this is the case.

If a management intervention is declared, the CNBV and the Institute for the Protection of Bank Savings (IPAB) will:

  1. appoint a precautionary manager (with full authority as if that individual acted as sole director of the entity, substituting the board of directors and the shareholders' meeting);
  2. prepare a report regarding the status of the institution; and
  3. engage in all activities and transactions required to safeguard the interests of the public at large.

For the fulfilment of his or her duties, the precautionary manager may be assisted by a consultation committee appointed by the IPAB. This managerial intervention may only terminate if the bank has begun its dissolution, the IPAB sells all the bank's capital stock, or the irregular or illegal transactions have been corrected.

If, after the intervention made by the precautionary manager to the banking institution, it is determined by the government's banking stability committee that the institution's recovery is unfeasible, the CNBV will revoke the bank's concession and the IPAB will intervene as the institutional liquidator, starting by paying all the amounts corresponding to secured transactions, and followed by the transfer of the bank's assets to a stable banking institution able to maintain them to preserve the continuity of the banking operations, or to a new banking institution created by the IPAB for that sole purpose; or, in the event that there are only liquid assets, the sale of those assets in favour of any capable third party.

In the event that the assets of the banking institution are not enough to pay its debt, a regulated mechanism to liquidate the defaulting institution's capital stock to cover as much of its debt as possible shall apply. At this moment, the bank is formally declared bankrupt.

Conduct of business

The conduct of business of Mexican banking institutions is regulated by Banxico and CNBV general rules, mainly the general rules applicable to credit institutions issued by the CNBV and Circular 3/2012 issued by Banxico.

The CNBV rules are aimed at prudential regulation, capitalisation, reserves, evaluation, risk management, the internal corporate structure of entities, financial information, its disclosure, external auditors, regulatory reports, early warnings and corrective measures.

On the other hand, Circular 3/2012 regulates transactions, deposits, debt certificates, subordinated debentures, bankers' acceptance, structured banking notes, credit transactions referenced to investment units or currency, banking cards (debit and credit), direct debiting, funds transfers, trusts, commissions, mandates, appraisals, ATMs, non-banking cards, currency exchange, securities transactions, precious metals and transactions with derivative instruments.


In the Mexican market, funding is normally made to small banks by development banks for the former to lower interest rates and compete with larger banks that have a sound capital structure and reserves and therefore do not require government funding.

Interbank funding is common. It is usually performed through three different types of negotiable instruments: banknotes, bankers' acceptances and deposit certificates. These may be exchanged by direct or repurchase transactions. Banxico has established a formula that generates an average interbank funding rate, which is based on the amounts and interest rates of banknotes, bankers' acceptances and deposit certificates marketed by banking institutions on a given date. This rate is published daily by Banxico to enable the public to evaluate funding transactions between banks and brokerage houses.

Bigger banks fund themselves through retail deposits, bank bonds and interbank loans.

Control of banks and transfers of banking business

i Control regime

The LIC regulates any transfer of shares of a banking institution over 2 per cent; in this event, the persons or entities either selling or acquiring the shares must notify the CNBV within three business days of the date on which the transaction takes place.

If more than 5 per cent of a banking institution's capital stock is intended to be acquired by a person or group of persons directly or indirectly, (or in the case of creating a security interest over the shares representing such percentage), prior approval from the CNBV must be secured. To obtain this authorisation, the intended purchaser must comply with certain requirements and provide the information requested by the CNBV.

Prior authorisation is also required if a person or group of persons, whether or not they are current shareholders, intend to acquire 20 per cent or more or to secure control of the entity. The requirements to secure this authorisation are broader and are similar to those required for the incorporation of the institution:

  1. a complete set of information regarding the acquiring party and its shareholders;
  2. their information;
  3. good reputation and moral qualifications;
  4. a list of the intended new board members and high-ranking officers, as well as their qualifications; and
  5. a general operating plan for the bank and a strategic programme for the organisation, management and internal controls of the institution.

The CNBV may also request any additional information.

If the requirements imposed by the CNBV for the acquisition of the shares are not complied with, the bank shall refrain from registering new shareholders as such, and report the matter to the CNBV within five business days.

ii Transfers of banking business

Mexican civil law states, as a general rule, that the assignment of credits or account receivables may be effective after notifying the debtor and registering the assignment with the Sole Registry of Liens over Movables Assets (RUG); if the debtor is not duly notified of such assignment, all payments made to the original creditor will be considered valid for legal purposes. For the assignment of debts, the debtor must secure consent from the creditor.

Nonetheless, the LIC provides a special rule that the assignment or discount of credit portfolios may be performed by banks without any restriction, provided that the assignment is made to:

  1. Banxico;
  2. other banks;
  3. trusts implemented by the federal government to promote the economy; or
  4. trusts that have as their main purpose the issuance of securities.

If the assignment or discount of the credit portfolio is intended for any other person, consent from the CNBV must be secured in advance. Hence, credit portfolios may be assigned without customers' consent provided that notice is given. Regarding the assignment of deposits, customers' consent is required as a general rule.

The year in review

The International Monetary Fund projects GDP for 2022 of 4.4 per cent for Mexico.11 The overall GDP for the current administration (2018–2024) is expected to be 0.2 per cent. This projected growth is in alignment with the projection made by Mexico's central bank. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development projects for Mexico GDP for 2022 of 3.3 per cent and for 2023 of 2.5 per cent.12

Mexico continues its efforts to improve financial inclusion, in which fintech entities will play a key role. In February 2021, Apple Pay announced that its payment platform will only enable payments by credit and debit cards issued by American Express, Citibanamex and Banorte.

Mexico's GDP, as consequence of the covid-19 pandemic, as well as other domestic and international factors, decreased by 8.5 per cent, which is the largest reduction in over 80 years.

Fintech continues to be one of the hot topics for consumer finance in Mexico, as in many other parts of the world. On 8 March 2018, Mexico became the seventh country in the world to regulate fintech by enacting the Financial Technology Institutions Law (LITF). This Law aims to build a regulatory framework that will encourage the development of innovative financial services, increase the level of competition and financial inclusion, and place Mexico at the forefront of the fintech industry.

Under the LITF and its secondary regulations, all new fintech entities in Mexico require operational authorisation from the CNBV, and any existing fintech entities operating in Mexico at the time the LITF was enacted were bound to complete their filing before 25 September 2019. Although in May 2019, the CNBV identified approximately 500 fintech platforms operating within Mexico, approximately 201 were placed within the regulatory scope of the LITF, and as of August 2020, only 90 had filed an authorisation request to the CNBV.

In 2021, the CNBV published in the Official Gazette several definitive authorisations for crowdfunding and electronic payments fintech to continue their operations, but now in a fully regulated manner. As of 8 February 2022, the CNBV had issued 24 definitive authorisations and 34 conditional authorisations (i.e., the regulator requested certain requirements to be fulfilled by fintechs before they can be definitely authorised). Thus, it may be that by the end of this year, at least 50 fintechs in Mexico will have been definitively authorised.13

2022 will be a year of consolidation of the ecosystem; as such, in addition to authorisations, it is expected that new mergers and acquisitions, and greater involvement of bank,s will take place. It should be noted that operating as a fintech in Mexico without a licence may result in severe civil and criminal penalties that include fines up to 150,000 units of measure (approximately 13.5 million Mexican pesos).

In accordance with a recent reform of the Federal Tax Code and the rules of the Miscellaneous Tax Code, which entered into force on 1 January 2022, companies, trustors, trustees, fiduciaries, and contracting or integrating parties, in the case of any other legal figures, will have the obligation to identify the beneficial ownership and make this available to the Tax Administration Service.

Likewise, notaries public, public brokers, financial entities and service providers that intervene in the incorporation of companies or the creation of trusts will have the obligation to identify the beneficial ownership and keep this information as part of their accounting information.

Outlook and conclusions

Financial technology solutions such as mobile phone payment applications, mobile points of sale, electronic banking services and more efficient credit-granting procedures implemented through ATMs and fintech entities continue to be developed and are bringing banking usage to previously unbanked parts of the country.

Financial growth is expected for 2022: exports will continue to benefit from, and increase as a result of, the recovery in the United States, as well as the consumption of goods and services seeing a gradual improvement in the labour market and an increase in the proportion of the population vaccinated against covid-19.

Investments will benefit from planned infrastructure projects, while inflation will decrease after the notable increase registered in 2021. Investments are recovering slowly, and are still 8 per cent below their pre-pandemic level.

The Mexican Central Bank has increased its interest rates 0.5 points, from 5.5 to 6 per cent (as of January 2022). Interest rates are one of the most important tools used by central banks to carry out their monetary policy. An increase in interest rates serves to control and mitigate inflation and protect the currency. This change is the first to have occurred since 1 December 2021, when the Central Bank increased interest rates by 0.5 points, to 5.5 per cent.

The banking system in Mexico continues to be strong despite the ongoing economic crisis. Bank loans are expected to increase in 2022, which will result in economic growth.


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