The Corporate Immigration Review: USA
Introduction to the immigration framework
i Legislation and policy
US immigration policy has multiple goals. First, it reunites families by admitting immigrants whose relatives are already in the United States.2 Second, it admits foreign workers to perform labour, generally taking into consideration the availability and working conditions of US workers.3 Third, it provides a refuge for those facing persecution on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.4 Finally, it promotes diversity in the immigrant pool by randomly providing visas to immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States.5
This policy provides two pathways for admission to the United States: aliens may be admitted as immigrants on a permanent basis or as non-immigrants for a temporary period.6 Immigrants are called lawful permanent residents (LPRs) and have an immigrant visa often referred to as a green card. LPRs have full civil rights to work in the United States. Over 1 million new immigrants are admitted to the United States each year.7 Non-immigrants are admitted for a particular activity and for a finite period. Certain non-immigrants may work in the United States depending on their visa classification. In recent years, approximately 186 million non-immigrants have been admitted to the United States.8
ii The immigration authorities
US immigration laws can be found in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended.9 The INA brought together all the nation's statutes on immigration and naturalisation, and it remains the basic body of immigration law. The INA included a national origins quota system of immigrant selection, quota-free restrictions for the western hemisphere, quota preferences for relatives and skilled persons, and security protections against criminals and subversives.
Since 1952 the INA has been amended countless times by legislation, although its structure has remained intact. Significant amendments are outlined below.
In 1965, the INA of that year abolished the national origins system and set annual limits on immigration and a per-country quota.10 By equalising immigration policies, the effect was to shift immigration from Europe to Asia and to South and Central America.
In 1986 the INA was amended again by the Immigration Reform and Control Act.11 To curtail the rising tide of illegal immigration, the law imposed civil and criminal penalties on employers who knowingly hired aliens not authorised to work and required employers to verify the identity and work eligibility of all employees through the completion of Employment Eligibility Verification Form I-9 at the time of hiring.
In the same year, the Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments Act was passed to prevent marriages intended solely to gain immigration benefits.12 It established a two-year period of 'conditional residence' for foreign nationals who marry a US citizen, at the end of which the US citizen spouse must petition the government to remove the conditional status.
The Immigration Act of 199013 substantially changed the preference system for immigrants by establishing new categories with separate caps for employment-based immigration and family-sponsored immigrants. It removed quotas for immediate relatives and established a diversity programme for immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration. It also created a cap on H-1B and H-2B non-immigrant workers and required employers to file a labour condition application (LCA) with the US Department of Labour (DOL) regarding wages and other working conditions for H-1B workers. The law also created new non-immigrant visa categories: the O visa for persons of extraordinary ability and the P visa for certain types of entertainers.
In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)14 was passed, which expanded the categories of offences for which aliens could be deported, eliminated certain waivers of deportation and established a new bar to admission, of three or 10 years, for aliens who had been unlawfully present in the United States for six months or one year, respectively.
In addition to federal immigration law, the United States has witnessed the proliferation of state and local immigration laws.15 These have emerged because of the perceived failure of the federal government to control the migration of undocumented persons to the United States or the removal of persons unlawfully in the United States. However, under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution,16 the regulation and enforcement of immigration matters fall within the purview of the federal government, and federal courts have historically struck down state and local attempts to regulate immigration with some limited exceptions.17 For example, the Supreme Court upheld an Arizona provision that requires state law enforcement officials to determine the immigration status of anyone they stop or arrest if they have reason to suspect that the individual might be in the country illegally, but struck down all other provisions on the grounds that they were pre-empted by federal law.18
Several US agencies implement and enforce immigration law.
Through its Bureau of Consular Affairs, the US Department of State processes immigrant and non-immigrant visa applications.19
In 2003, the Department of Homeland Security was created with separate branches to administer immigration laws:20
- US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is the agency responsible for the processing of all immigrant and non-immigrant visa petitions and applications by aliens who are already in the United States;
- US Customs and Border Protection (USCBP) operates at the nation's borders, airports and seaports and is responsible for determining the admissibility of arriving aliens and for determining their length of stay; and
- US Immigration and Customs and Enforcement has authority to detain and remove illegal aliens and enforces the Immigration Reform and Control Act.
The DOL's Employment and Training Administration21 processes permanent employment labour certification applications (PERMs) filed by employers seeking to employ foreign workers permanently in the United States. It also processes labour condition applications filed by employers wishing to employ H-1B workers.
Finally, the US Department of Health and Human Services22 determines the admissibility of aliens on health grounds.
International treaty obligations
i Immigration benefits pursuant to treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation
The United States has entered into treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation (FCN) with 82 countries.23 Nationals of these countries may be eligible for non-immigrant E visas as traders or investors, or employees of qualifying trader or investor enterprises.
The individual or enterprise must submit an application to the US consulate in the country of their nationality to qualify the trading or investment activity. The following criteria24 must be met:
- the visa applicant must be a citizen of the treaty country;
- if applicable, the trading or investment enterprise must also be a national of the treaty country (citizens of the treaty country must own at least 50 per cent of the business);
- treaty trader applicants must show they will be in the United States solely to carry on substantial trade, which is international in scope, principally conducted between the United States and the foreign state of which the alien is a national;
- treaty investor applicants must show they have invested or are actively in the process of investing a substantial amount of capital in a bona fide enterprise in the United States (not a small amount of capital in a marginal enterprise merely to earn a living) and are seeking entry solely to develop and direct the enterprise; and
- employees of trading and investment enterprises must serve in a managerial or executive role or as employees with 'essential skills'.
E visas may be valid for up to five years and holders are admitted to the United States for two years upon each entry.25 Holders must leave the United States after termination of status, but there is no upper time limit on renewal or extension of stay.
Spouses and children under 21 are entitled to E-derivative visas. Spouses may apply for work authorisation upon arrival in the United States.26
ii Immigration benefits pursuant to trade agreements
Immigration benefits accrue to certain nationals under trade agreements with the United States as follows.
North American Free Trade Agreement
In 1994, the United States implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and Mexico.27 NAFTA is a historic accord governing the largest trilateral trade relationship in the world and covers trade in goods, services and investments. NAFTA facilitates the movement of US, Canadian and Mexican business persons across each country's border through streamlined procedures.
Pursuant to NAFTA, citizens of Canada and Mexico are eligible for temporary US work visas in the following categories:
- trade NAFTA (TN) visa:28 the TN visa is limited to Canadian or Mexican professionals. A professional is a business person seeking entry to engage in a business activity at a professional level in one of 60 professions set out in Appendix 1603.D.1 to Annex 1603 of NAFTA. These include medical professionals, scientists, teachers and a broad range of other general professionals such as accountants, computer systems analysts, landscape architects and social workers. The qualification requirements are specified in NAFTA and generally include a baccalaureate degree in a directly related field, with some exceptions. Services must be rendered for an entity in the United States; self-employment is not permitted; and
- L-1 intracompany transfer visa and E-1 and E-2 treaty trader and investor visas:29 pursuant to NAFTA, Canadian and Mexican citizens may qualify for L-1 intra-company transferee visas, meeting the same criteria as discussed in Section IV, under the L-1 visa category, or the E-1 treaty trader or E-2 treaty investor visa as previously set out under FCN treaties.
The United States, Canada and Mexico renegotiated NAFTA in 2018 and signed a new regional trade pact on 30 November 2018, known as the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA).30 The USMCA went into effect on 1 July 2020.31 The US Trade Representative confirmed that USMCA does not require changes to US immigration laws and does not change access to visas between the three countries.32
Singapore and Chile free trade agreement H-1B1
In 2004, the United States enacted free trade implementation acts relating to Singapore and Chile.33 These acts created a new H-1B1 specialty occupation visa category with an annual cap of 5,400 visas for Singaporeans and 1,400 visas for Chileans. The 6,800 quota is counted against the annual 65,000 H-1B quota, described in Section IV. The criteria for the H-1B1 visas are the same as those for the H-1B visa.
Australian E-3 specialty occupation
In 2005, the United States entered into a free trade agreement with Australia.34 As a result, the E-3 visa category became available to Australian nationals who will be employed in the United States in a 'specialty occupation'. There is an annual quota of 10,500 E-3 visas, but the quota has never been met. To qualify, the US position generally must require a specific baccalaureate or higher degree (or its equivalent) as the minimum entry-level requirement and the employee must possess such a degree or its equivalent through well-documented employment experience.
E-3 visas may be issued for up to two years. There is no limit on extensions.
Spouses and children under 21 are entitled to E-3 derivative visas. E-3 spouses may apply for work authorisation upon arrival in the United States.35
The year in review
The covid-19 pandemic upended immigration as it swept across the globe. Travel bans and consular closings reduced new entrants to a trickle, while government policy changes challenged employers with foreign nationals already working in the US.
i Travel bans
Since early 2020, travellers from areas with high levels of covid-19 infections have been restricted from travelling to the US if they have been present in those countries in the past 14 days. Starting with China on 31 January 2020, the list expanded through a series of presidential proclamations to include Italy, Iran, the EU Schengen Area, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Brazil and South Africa.36 The land borders between the US, Canada and Mexico were closed to non-essential travel in March 2020.37
President Trump issued further proclamations to restrict certain categories of immigrants and nonimmigrants from applying for visas and entering the US. These included both employment and family-based immigrants,38 and workers in the H-1B and L-1 visa categories, among others.39 The restrictions expired on 31 March 2021.40
The State Department introduced national interest exceptions to the bans in July 2020 and recently updated the guidelines on the eligibility criteria.41 Potential visa applicants who are subject to a presidential proclamation can apply for an exception if they demonstrate they will be offering vital support to critical infrastructure sectors such as healthcare, financial services, information technology, communications and transportation systems. 42
Covid-19 testing requirements remain in effect for all travellers entering the US.43
ii Nonimmigrant visa developments
Nonimmigrants in the US have been hit with multiple challenges and delays as a result of the pandemic and former Trump administration policies.
The L-1 intracompany transfer visa was particularly impacted by the pandemic. Potential new transferees from abroad were restricted from entering, while those already present in the US who had planned to renew a visa at a consulate abroad were forced to apply for extensions with USCIS instead. Due to USCIS's strict, often inconsistent, adjudicating standards, employers have continued to see a high rate of requests for evidence and denials for their employees of L-1 visas.44
The new electronic H-1B visa lottery system for FY2021 was one of the few bright spots in 2020. Lottery registrations were submitted between 1 to 20 March 2020 and initial selections were made in early April 2020.45 When the annual quota of 85,000 was not filled, USCIS held a second round of selections in August 2020.46
The registration period for FY2022 H-1B petitions occurred between 9 to 25 March, with selections starting on 29 March.47 Employers have the period from 1 April to 30 June 2021 to file their petitions with USCIS.
The Trump administration tried – and ultimately failed – to impose stricter standards on H-1B visas. In October 2020, USCIS published proposed rules that would have changed the definition of H-1B specialty occupation visa,48 while the DOL significantly raised its wage levels required for eligibility in that category.49 Employers scrambled to find alternative wage sources that would allow them to file H-1B visa petitions under the new scheme.50 The DOL regulation was struck down by a court on 14 December 2020,51 and has since been postponed by the DOL under the Biden administration, such that implementation will not take effect until November 2022.52
v Immigrant visa developments
The 2020 ban on new immigrants from abroad had an upside for pending immigrants in the US. Without the usual flow of new arrivals filling the annual quota of immigrant visas, more nonimmigrants were eligible to apply for 'adjustment of status' within the US. No official numbers are yet available, but thousands of nonimmigrant workers were eligible to file their adjustment of status applications in October and November 2020, ending a wait of over 10 years for some Indian nationals in particular. They will be dealing with government processing backlogs for months, if not years, to come, but this filing will allow them some portability options to change employers until their permanent residence is granted.53
The Trump administration also attempted to impose a high bar for immigrants to prove they had sufficient financial resources to avoid becoming a 'public charge'.54 The rule required applicants for permanent residence to submit an onerous declaration of self sufficiency, along with their credit scores and multiple financial support documents. After several legal challenges, the rule was ultimately struck down by the courts in March 2021. 55
vi Change of presidential administration
In the midst of the pandemic, Americans elected a new president, Joseph R Biden, who was sworn in on 20 January 2021 after a contentious election season and aftermath. The Biden administration, seen as more immigration friendly, quickly sought to dismantle many of President Trump's policies:
- an executive order reiterated the 'buy American' message but dropped Trump's 'hire American' message;56
- travel bans on nationals of certain majority-Muslim and African countries were reversed;57 and
- an executive order sought to strengthen and protect the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals programme.58
President Biden has proposed sweeping legislation, the US Citizenship Act of 2021, which would provide a pathway to citizenship to the estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants in the US.59 Among the provisions that would impact corporate immigration, the bill would eliminate the current per country limits for immigrants and increase the numbers overall.60 The bill would also allow wage-based consideration of temporary workers, with broad discretion to tie H-1Bs and any other nonimmigrant categories to wages.61 This could have a negative impact on companies' immigration programmes for all temporary work visa categories.
In addition to non-immigrant visas offered through the treaties described in Section II, US immigration law offers several other non-immigrant visa classifications that may be used for new hires or intra-company transferees.
For each classification, US employers must file a petition with USCIS to demonstrate eligibility.62 The petition is typically adjudicated within three to six months. After approval, the foreign worker must apply for a visa at a US consulate.63 Workers already in the United States may also be eligible for a change of status. If the petition is denied by USCIS, an appeal may be filed with USCIS's Administrative Appeals Office. Adverse decisions on visa applications by the US consul are generally non-reviewable.
Useful non-immigrant visa classifications include the following.
H-1B visas are available to specialty occupation workers.64 To qualify, the position in the United States generally must require a specific baccalaureate or higher degree (or its equivalent) as the minimum entry-level requirement; and the employee must possess such a degree or its equivalent through well-documented employment experience.
There is an annual quota of 65,000 first-time H-1B visa recipients. An additional 20,000 H-1B visas are available for graduates of US universities with master's degrees and higher. These visas are allocated in the order in which the petitions are received. Petitions are accepted on 1 April each year for the fiscal year starting on 1 October.
Spouses and children under 21 are entitled to H-4 visas. Certain H-4 spouses are eligible for employment if the primary H-1B worker is in the process of applying for permanent residence. While the Trump administration proposed a rollback on this privilege, on 25 January 2021, the proposed regulation was withdrawn.65
The O-1 visa is available to persons of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business or athletics.66 To qualify, the foreign worker must demonstrate sustained national or international acclaim by satisfying a number of criteria listed in USCIS regulations.67
The O-1 visa may be granted for an initial period of up to three years and may be renewed in annual increments without limit.
The L-1 non-immigrant visa is available for intra-company transferees.68 To qualify, the employee must be employed by the company overseas for one full year in the past three years in an executive, managerial or specialised knowledge capacity; and the employee must be transferred to a US branch, subsidiary or affiliate of the overseas company to work in an executive, managerial or specialised knowledge capacity.
Spouses and children under 21 are entitled to L-2 derivative visas. L-2 spouses may apply for work authorisation upon arrival in the United States.69
L-1 petitions are approved for an initial period of three years. L-1B specialised knowledge employees may obtain a two-year extension for a maximum of five years, while L-1A executives and managers may obtain extensions in two-year increments, up to a maximum of seven years.70 A specialised knowledge employee promoted to a managerial role may be eligible for a change in classification from L-1B to L-1A and a corresponding two-year extension, providing the change is made before the employee reaches four-and-a-half years in L-1 status.71
Certain employers with large offices in the United States or who sponsor a significant number of intra-company transferees each year may apply to USCIS for 'L Blanket' approval, which permits them to bypass filing individual petitions with USCIS for each transfer and instead file an L Blanket petition directly at a US consulate. To qualify as an L Blanket employer, USCIS requires evidence that an office in the United States has been doing business for at least one year; that the organisation has three or more domestic and foreign branches, subsidiaries or affiliates; and that it is sufficiently large in terms of US employees (at least 1,000) or intra-company transferees (at least 10 in the previous 12 months) or in terms of annual sales (at least US$25 million).72
For foreign employees, the path to permanent resident status follows two steps: a petition to USCIS to become a preference immigrant; and an application for an immigrant visa.
- first employment-based preference (EB-1): multinational executives and managers, aliens of extraordinary ability or outstanding professors or researchers;
- second employment-based preference (EB-2): aliens who possess an advanced degree or have exceptional ability; or
- third employment-based preference (EB-3): members of the professions possessing a bachelor's degree and skilled workers.
Employment-based immigrant visas are limited to an annual quota of 140,000 visas.75 Since demand often exceeds supply, especially in the EB-3 category, immigrant visas can be unavailable for several years.76
Application for an immigrant visa
An application for adjustment of status may be filed with USCIS by foreign nationals seeking immigrant visas and their spouses and unmarried children under the age of 21.77 Alternatively, they may apply for immigrant visas at a US consulate in the country of their nationality or most recent overseas residence.78
iii Labour market regulation
The DOL regulates the employment of foreign workers under both non-immigrant and immigrant visas. A labour market test is generally not required to sponsor a non-immigrant worker but may be required to sponsor a worker for permanent residence.
LCAs for non-immigrant H-1B and E-3 visas
Before applying for an H-1B or E-3 visa, the US employer must file an LCA with the DOL.79 The LCA requires the employer to attest that:
- the non-immigrant will be paid the required wage;
- the employment of the non-immigrant will not adversely affect the working conditions of workers similarly employed in the area of intended employment;
- as of the date of filing the LCA, there is no strike or lockout involving the position; and
- notice of the position has been provided to the bargaining representative or has been posted in a conspicuous place where the non-immigrant will be employed.
For H-1B and E-3 visas, employers must ensure they pay foreign workers the DOL's required wage for the particular occupation and region.80 The LCA attestations, data on the required wage determination and the salary for the position must be maintained in a public access file available for inspection by the public or the DOL's wage and hour inspectors.81 Wage violations may be subject to fines or disbarment from the H-1B (or E-3) programmes, or both of these sanctions.82
Labour certification for permanent residents
A labour market test is generally required to sponsor foreign workers in the EB-2 and EB-3 categories.83 Prior to filing the preference petition, an employer must apply for PERM labour certification with the DOL. To obtain a PERM labour certification approval, the employer must document the shortage of US workers who are able, willing and qualified to perform the job's duties.84 Under the PERM regulations, the employer must conduct specified recruitment activities for 60 days.85 If no qualified, willing and able US workers are identified through the recruitment efforts, the employer may proceed with the PERM labour certification application, which can be completed and submitted online to the DOL. Processing times range from four to six months. The DOL can audit the applications up to five years from the filing date. Audited cases can take over one year for review.
iv Rights and duties of sponsored employees
Non-immigrant workers must be employed in the position described in the sponsoring petition, not work for another employer and ensure they do not remain in the United States beyond the date of admission indicated on their arrival or departure record issued by USCBP. They may apply for an extension or change of visa status with USCIS before the end of their current period of admission. Overstays may bar future entry to the United States, as mandated by IIRIRA.86
Non-immigrant workers may reside and work in the United States for the sponsoring employer for the period of admission as determined by USCBP upon their entry. They may apply for social security numbers87 and be eligible for future social security payments.88 H-1B employees are entitled to receive the wage indicated in the employer's LCA filed with the DOL (see above). They may lodge a complaint with the DOL if they are not receiving the stated wage or have been 'benched' by the employer.89
If an employer terminates the employment of an H-1B or O-1 worker before the end of the approved period of validity, the employee is entitled to payment for the cost of transportation to his or her country of residence.90
LPRs generally have full civil rights to work in the United States for any employer. They have no political rights, but may apply for US naturalisation after having satisfied residence and physical presence requirements.91
Investors, skilled migrants and entrepreneurs
i Immigrant investors
Foreign nationals who invest significant sums of money in US enterprises may qualify for permanent resident status in the immigrant investor category, known as the fifth employment-based preference category (EB-5). There are two investment options within EB-5: creation of a new US enterprise or investment in a regional centre.
Creation of a new US enterprise
The primary eligibility requirements are:92
- investment of at least US$1.8 million in a new commercial enterprise93 (or US$900,000 if in a targeted commercial area, which includes a rural area or an area that has experienced unemployment of at least 150 per cent of the national average94);
- creation of full-time employment for at least 10 new workers who must be direct employees of the commercial enterprise; and
- active management of the enterprise through day-to-day managerial control or policy formulation.
Investment in a regional centre
Regional centres are investment opportunities that have been pre-approved by USCIS with respect to the more stringent criteria listed above (new enterprise, job creation, targeted commercial area). Eligibility criteria include:95
- investment by the foreign national of US$900,000; and
- the enterprise must create full-time employment for at least 10 new workers; however, indirect job creation is permitted (vendors, contractors, etc.).
The types of investments in the current 673 USCIS-approved regional centres are varied.96 Active investment is not required, therefore the foreign national may be a limited partner.
There is an annual quota of approximately 10,000 immigrant investor visas, or 7.1 per cent of the worldwide level, not less than 3,000 of which are reserved for investors in a targeted rural or high-unemployment area, and 3,000 of which are set aside for investors in regional centres. Due to high demand, the category is backlogged for investors from China.97
The permanent resident process for the EB-5 category consists of two parts: the petition to be classified as an investor, and the individual applications of the petitioner and his or her spouse and any unmarried children under the age of 21 for an immigrant visa. After approval of an immigrant investor petition and the immigrant visa applications, conditional US permanent residence is granted for two years.98 At the conclusion of this period, the foreign national must demonstrate that the money has been invested and that the enterprise remains viable and continues to employ 10 workers.99 If these conditions are not satisfied, the permanent residence will be terminated.
ii Self-sponsored immigrant petitions
Most employment-based routes for permanent residence require an employer to sponsor the foreign national and conduct a labour market test. Two categories permit the foreign national to self-sponsor without the need for a labour certification:
- Extraordinary ability: individuals of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business or athletics may apply for permanent residence without an employer sponsor in the EB-1 immigrant category.100 The criteria are comparable to those of the O-1 non-immigrant visa,101 although USCIS often imposes a higher standard of review because of the permanent immigration benefit that is to be obtained.
- National interest waiver: foreign nationals may file petitions in the EB-2 category seeking a national interest waiver (a request that PERM labour certification be waived because it is in the interests of the United States).102 Although the jobs that qualify for a national interest waiver are not defined by statute, national interest waivers may be granted to those who have exceptional ability and whose employment in the United States would be in the national interest.103 Exceptional ability is a degree of expertise that is significantly above that ordinarily encountered in the sciences, arts or business.104
A foreign national seeking a national interest waiver must meet at least three of the criteria listed in USCIS's regulations and demonstrate that the national interest would be greatly served if he or she worked permanently in the United States.105
As with the EB-5 investor, the permanent resident process for EB-1 extraordinary ability and EB-2 national interest waiver categories consists of two parts: the petition to be classified as an alien of extraordinary ability or an alien eligible for national interest waiver, and the individual applications of the petitioner, his or her spouse and any unmarried children under the age of 21 for an immigrant visa.
Outlook and conclusions
With a new President in power, the US now has a more welcoming, pro-immigration administration. The shifts in tone and policies have been a relief for many. However, President Biden's ability to achieve meaningful policy changes will be hampered by outside forces. The Democrats' slim margins in the House and Senate will make it challenging to pass comprehensive immigration reform. The process to unwind Trump's more than 1,000 regulatory changes106 could take months or even years, as they require the government to issue a notice of proposed rule-making followed by a public comment period. In addition, just a few months into his term, President Biden is already being challenged by a crisis at the southern border, where a record number of unaccompanied minors have gathered.107 The border surge may overshadow any other substantive corporate immigration changes in Biden's term. Finally, covid-19 continues to cast its long shadow around the world, impacting travel, consular processing and entries into the US throughout most of 2021.
1 Stephen J O Maltby and Ellen L Poreda are partners and Renna Nukta is an associate at Gibney, Anthony & Flaherty, LLP.
2 The Immigration and Nationality Act 1952 (INA), Section 203(a).
3 INA, Section 203(b).
4 INA, Sections 207 to 208.
5 INA, Section 203(c).
6 INA, Section 101(a)(15).
7 US Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, '2019 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics' (2019), Table 1: https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2019?collection=immigration-data-and-statistics..
8 id., Table 25: https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2019/table25.
9 INA, Pub. L. No. 82–414, 66 Stat. 162 (1952).
10 INA, Pub. L. No. 89–236, 79 Stat. 911 (1965).
11 Immigration Reform and Control Act, Pub. L. No. 99–603, 100 Stat. 3359 (1986).
12 Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments, Pub. L. No. 99–639, 100 Stat. 3537 (1986).
13 Immigration Act, Pub. L. No. 101–649, 104 Stat. 4978 (1990).
14 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, Pub. L. No. 104–208, 110 Stat. 3009 (1996).
15 See National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015 Immigration Report (2016), available at:www.ncsl.org/documents/statefed/ImmigrationReport2015Final_Feb2016.pdf.
16 US Constitution Article 1, Section 7, cl. 43.
17 Head Money Cases, 112 US 580 (1884).
18 Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S 339 (2012).
19 INA, Sections 221 to 222.
20 INA, Section 103.
21 INA, Section 212(a)(5)(A), (n).
22 INA Section 212(a)(1).
23 For a list of countries with FCN treaties, see 9 Foreign Affairs Manual 402.9-10, available at https://fam.state.gov/searchapps/viewer?format=html&query=E%20treaty&links=E,TREATI&url=/FAM/09FAM/09FAM040209.html#M402_9_2.
24 INA Section 101(a)(15)(E); 8 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 214.2(e).
25 8 CFR, Section 214.2(e)(19).
26 INA, Section 214(e)(16).
27 North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No. 103–182, 107 Stat. 2057 (1993).
28 INA, Section 203(e)(2); 8 CFR, Section 214.6(c).
29 8 CFR, Section 214.2(l)(17)(i).
33 United States–Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No. 108–77, 117 Stat. 909 (2003); United States–Singapore Free Trade Agreement Act, Pub. L. No. 108–78, 117 Stat. 948 (2003).
34 United States–Australia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No. 108–286, 118 Stat. 919 (2004).
35 INA, Section 214(e)(16).
43 Centers for Disease Control, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/testing-international-air-travelers.html.
51 Purdue Univ v. Scalia, No. 1:20-cv-03006, (D.D.C. Dec. 14, 2020) and Stellar IT, Inc v. Scalia, 1:2020cv03175, (D.D.C. Dec 14, 2020) .
52 Federal Register, Vol. 86, No. 47, 12 March 2021.
53 American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act of 2001 (AC21) .
54 Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds final rule (84 Fed. Reg. 41,292 (Aug. 14, 2019), as amended by Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds; Correction, 84 Fed. Reg. 52,357 (Oct. 2, 2019).
55 On 2 November 2020, the US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois vacated the Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds final rule nationwide. That decision was stayed by the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. On 9 March 2021, the Seventh Circuit lifted its stay, and the US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois' order vacating the Public Charge Final Rule went into effect.
62 INA, Section 214(c)(1).
63 INA, Section 212(a)(7)(B).
64 INA, Sections 101(a)(15)(H), 214(i)(1).
66 INA, Section 101(a)(15)(O); 8 CFR, Section 214.2(o)(1)(i).
67 8 CFR, Section 214.2(o)(3)(iii).
68 INA, Section 101 (a)(15)(L); 8 CFR, Section 214.2(l)(1)(i).
69 INA, Section 214(c)(2)(E).
70 8 CFR, Section 214.2(l)(12).
71 8 CFR, Section 214.2(l)(15)(ii).
72 INA, Section 214(c)(2)(A); 8 CFR, Section 214.2(l)(4)(i).
73 INA, Section 204(a).
74 INA, Section 203(b); 8 CFR, Section 204.5.
75 INA, Section 201(d).
76 INA, Section 203(b), (e); see US Department of State, Visa Bulletin (April 2011), www.travel.state.gov/visa/bulletin/bulletin_5368.html.
77 INA, Section 245.
78 22 CFR, Section 42.61(a).
79 INA, Section 212(n)(1); INA, Section 212(t)(1); 20 CFR, Section 655.730(d).
80 INA, Section 212(n)(1)(A), (t)(1)(A).
81 20 CFR, Section 655.760.
82 INA, Section 212(n)(2)(C),(t)(3)(C).
83 INA, Section 212(a)(5)(A).
84 20 CFR, Section 656.10.
85 20 CFR, Section 656.17(e).
86 INA, Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i).
88 Social Security Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 108-203, 118 Stat. 493 (2004).
89 8 CFR, Sections 655.731, 665.710.
90 INA, Section 214(c)(5).
91 INA, Section 316.
92 INA, Section 203(b)(5).
93 8 CFR 204.6(f)(1).
94 8 CFR 204.6(f)(2).
95 8 CFR, Section 204.6(m).
98 8 CFR, Section 204.6(l).
99 8 CFR, Section 216.6.
100 INA, Section 203(b)(1).
101 INA, Section 101(a)(15)(o).
102 INA, Section 203(b)(2)(A) and (B).
103 8 CFR, Section 204.5(k)4)(ii).
104 8 CFR, Section 204.5(k)(2).
105 8 CFR, Section 204.5(k)(3); Matter of New York State Dep't of Transp., 22 I&N December 215 (Comm'r 1998).