The Mining Law Review: Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan has the world's fourth-largest gold reserves and is ranked 12th in the world and second among Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries (after Russia) in terms of mining.2 Uzbekistan is among the top 10 countries with the largest uranium3 and copper reserves.4 As reported by the State Geology Committee (GeoCom) in 2018, only 20 per cent of Uzbek territory has been explored, with potential mineral resources being evaluated at US$5.7 billion. The country's explored reserves comprise more than US$1 billion.5
Metallurgy is one of the largest domestic industries, and the most mined minerals are copper, gold, silver and uranium. There are two dominant state mining enterprises: the Almalyk Mining and Metallurgy Complex (AGMK) and the Navoi Mining and Metallurgy Complex (NGMK); the latter was recently transformed into a joint-stock company, with uranium and rare earth metals production hived off into a separate state enterprise, Navoiuran. Both AGMK and NGMK are working to enhance their management structures, the methods for assessing and accounting for mineral reserves and their financial reporting, which, as acknowledged by a presidential resolution6 in January 2019, impeded production growth and deterred investment.
Under Uzbek law, all subsoil is under public ownership; use of the subsoil is allowed based on a licence.7 The long-term programmes adopted in recent years are aimed at accelerated development, modernisation and the expansion of production of the large enterprises of the mining and metallurgical industry. In accordance with Presidential Resolution No. PP-4124 dated 17 January 2019, it is planned to increase production by 30 per cent at NGMK by 2026, attract investments in the amount of $2.9 billion to AGMK and increase copper production by 28 per cent and zinc by 75 per cent by 2023.
The government is keen to attract foreign investment as well and in May 2017 approved an unprecedented resolution approving the lists of the prospective areas for exploration and development, including for gold, silver and copper, which has been followed by a number of decisions on simplifying the licensing requirements.
The current legislation on subsoil use is based on the constitution and comprised of the Law on Subsoil, the Law on Production Sharing Agreement, The Law on Concessions and a number of presidential and governmental resolutions. The primary law on the field is the Law on Subsoil,8 which lays down the basic legal principles on mining and regulates the principal issues of possession, use and disposal of the subsoil. The general structure and directions of regulation over the mining sector are usually initiated by presidential decrees, and then incorporated into more detailed decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers (government). Relations in the mining industry, similar to other market relations, are also governed by the provisions of civil, tax, environmental, corporate, currency, land and other industry-related laws.
All subsoil operations in Uzbekistan are subject to licensing. There are several regulations on licensing depending on the underground activity (exploration, development, artisanal mining, use of technogenic mineral formations, etc.) or the mineral that is sought after (ore minerals, non-metallic minerals, oil and gas). These regulate the conditions, requirements and procedure of licensing. All taxation questions are regulated principally by the Tax Code.
There are three groups of regulatory bodies in the mining industry: the government, local government bodies and specially authorised bodies.9 The government is a primary regulating body in the industry, which adopts policies for the development of the mining sector and licensing procedures, in addition to other matters. Local government bodies carry out supervising functions over the use and conservation of resources, and the prevention of unauthorised use of the subsoil. The specially authorised bodies are the following three agencies: GeoCom, the State Committee for Ecology and Environmental Protection (EcoCom) and the State Committee for Industrial Safety of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Among them, the GeoCom is the main executive body responsible for the development of mining policies, and is also the licensing and compliance monitoring body. EcoCom coordinates issues of environmental protection, standards for mining operations and waste management. Mining allotments for the development of mineral deposits are coordinated with the Committee for Industrial Safety in terms of ensuring industrial safety.
Mining rights and required licences and permits
Subsoil title generally vests with the state. Under Uzbek law, the award of the subsoil rights is possible as a result of online auctions or through direct negotiations (see Section III.ii for more details). In practical terms, the latter dominates. The most used contractual framework for all kinds of mining is a production sharing agreement (PSA). There is no alternative at the moment as the Law on Concessions is pretty outdated and has never been actually used for the past 30 years. The president, in July 2019, ordered the adoption of international standards in management and implementation of investment projects in mining, envisaging a licence agreement framework, but to the best of our knowledge this work is still in preparation. An international financial institution is assisting the government in reforming the mining sector and it is expected that some recommendations on policy and redrafting of the subsoil laws will be submitted by the end of 2020.
ii Surface and mining rights
As a rule, each type of subsoil use requires the obtaining of a special licence (geological exploration; production mining; use of technogenic mineral formations; construction and operation of underground structures not related to mining; formation of protected geological objects; collecting samples of gemstone raw materials, paleontological remains and other geological collection materials).10 Nevertheless, there is no limitation on the number of licences that the same person or entity may obtain.11 The licence term for exploration is usually five years, and for mining and use of technogenic mineral formations the term depends on the feasibility study.
A new regulation approved in June 2020 provides that the main licensing method is an online auction. The list of available subsoil areas is compiled annually by GeoCom. However, there are a number of cases where licences can be issued as a result of direct negotiations:
- according to the presidential or governmental decisions or 'road maps' approved by them;
- in the event of failure of online auctions for one year;
- if a legal entity that financed the geological exploration of mineral resources fully or partially assigns the exclusive right to extract minerals from a prospected field to another entity in agreement with GeoCom; and
- for some facilities for hydrocarbon raw materials and other strategic types of minerals that have significant commercial potential, as well as under separate agreements – by selecting the best offers on the basis of competitive bidding in cooperation with the State Commission to Develop Conditions for the Use of Subsoil Resources.12
Thus, the licensing of the exploration and production of oil and gas can be granted through direct negotiations, and for other fields only in cases of 'significant commercial potential', a term that is not defined.
Licenses for the right to use subsoil areas containing non-metallic mineral resources are also issued as a result of online auctions or as a result of direct negotiations on agreements concluded within the framework of the GeoCom investment projects, as well as tripartite agreements between GeoCom, the Uzpromstroymaterial Association13 and local executive authorities.14
Land plots with mineral deposits cannot be privatised.
Mining rights protection
The law guarantees the right of the subsoil user to operate without interference from state bodies. The right to seek remedies against the damages (including lost profit) resulting from such interference (i.e., unreasonable limitation, suspension or termination of the right to use the subsoil) is also guaranteed.15 Such a company may apply to court for relevant compensation or another type of remedy.
There are also additional guarantees for subsoil users that have financed the geological exploration of mineral resources.16 They shall have the exclusive right to obtain licences to mine on the discovered field. If the financing person chooses to reject the guaranteed mining right, such a right is provided to another person based on the results of an auction held on the marketplace in accordance with the general provisions.17
iii Additional permits and licences
In addition to the licensing requirements, there are several other permits and procedures (land allotment and environmental issues, water use permits, planning and project documentation approvals) that precede mining operations.18 Production mining rights can only be awarded after their reserves are approved by the State Commission for Mineral Reserves under GeoCom. If new types of minerals or associated mineral components unknown at the time of issuing the licence are identified, as well as new properties or qualities of minerals in the production field, subsoil users are obliged to send geological materials to the Commission to reapprove the reserves.
In order to obtain land usage rights, the licence holder needs to obtain the mining allotment from the Inspectorate for Control of Mining and Geological Activity at the State Committee for Geology and duly register their right of usage to the land with the cadastre bodies. If applicable, the licensee may also need to obtain a permit for special use of water or water consumption. Exploration works and other surveying works can be carried out without withdrawing land from landowners, land users, tenants and owners.19 There is a specific permit requirement for importing and operation of drones, which has to be granted by a separate resolution of the government.
The following documentation on projects involving the extraction or processing of strategic minerals (which comprises almost all metal and precious minerals, hydrocarbons and rare earth metals), regardless of funding sources, is subject to state examination:
- terms of reference for the development of pre-project documentation;
- pre-project documentation (feasibility study and technical and economic assessment) for investment and infrastructure projects; and
- design documentation (standard projects).
This requirement does not apply to projects for which a separate procedure has been established for development, examination and approval (by the decisions of the President of Uzbekistan), as well as to projects implemented under PSAs.20
iv Closure and remediation of mining projects
Both the liquidation and conservation of mining enterprises are usually carried out on the basis of a special technical project.21
Environmental and social considerations
i Environmental, health and safety regulations
Currently, there is no special law on environmental requirements for mining activities. In general, irrespective of the type of activity, all companies must comply with the environmental regulations. The legal basis for environmental controls is laid down by the Law on Environmental Protection. Compliance with environmental regulations is supervised by the government and EcoCom.22
In cases where harm is caused to the environment (e.g., unintended use, subsoil pollution by chemicals, fertility deterioration), the right to use the land may be revoked by the state.23 Moreover, any company involved in an activity that produces waste (in the course of extraction or processing) must comply with sanitary and environmental standards, monitor levels of waste that are hazardous for the environment and people, provide conditions for safe waste utilisation and avoid waste disposal within unauthorised territories.24 More detailed rules are elaborated in the Uniform Rules of Subsoil Protection for Development of Mineral Deposits. According to these rules, a company involved in mining must, at its own expense, conduct recultivation of the land after termination of all works on all lands suitable for farming, forestry or any other agricultural activity, or for the fishing industry. It is the company's responsibility to maintain necessary facilities and equipment for the prevention, control and remediation of waste products. Besides this, it is strictly forbidden to start mining works if a company does not operate the above-mentioned facilities.25
Health and safety regulations
Uzbek law does not differentiate health and safety regulations depending on the company's type of activity. Therefore, all types of health and safety regulations and other correlated legislative instruments have to be observed by mining companies. Employers should insure their liability for any harm that may be caused to an employee's health as a result of work-related injuries, professional illness or other damage caused during the employee's employment.26
Supervision by the regulatory bodies administering the observance of laws on safety precautions may be divided into external and internal control. External control is performed by the government27 and the Ministry of Employment and labour relations, while internal control is carried out by the company's employees or trade union, or both.28
The labour law29 requires the employer to provide preliminary (pre-employment) and periodical (throughout employment) medical examinations for some groups of employees, such as, (1) underage employees; (2) age 60+ male and 55+ female employees; (3) disabled people; and (4) people working under challenging environments, during the night and in work related to transportation and others.
The frequency of such periodical medical examinations depends on the character of the employee's professional duties and his or her position. Employees engaged in mining activities are required to be medically examined by a physician, neurologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon, psychiatrist, sexual health specialist and skin specialist. For the purpose of provision of medical services to employees, the employer may freely enter into a contract with a competent medical institution of its choice. At present, the health insurance system is underdeveloped in Uzbekistan because of the absence of any specific law regulating this field. However, based on a company's internal policy, it is possible to apply on a voluntary basis to an insurance company to provide the company's employees with health insurance under a scheme that runs for a period of one year only.30
Any company operating in Uzbekistan, irrespective of its type of activity, has to observe health and safety rules. In cases where the number of employees equals or exceeds 50 persons, the employer must establish a special department or position responsible for health and safety compliance. Moreover, if the company possesses 50 or more vehicles, an analogous department for traffic safety must be organised within the company. In cases where the number of employees or vehicles is less than 50, the employer may assign such duty to one of its senior managers.31 The specialists in the health and safety department and traffic safety department are responsible for internally controlling the observance of the health and safety rules by the employees.
All employees of the company must be properly informed by the employer on labour conditions and professional risks before conclusion of the employment agreement, or while they are on transfer to another position within the company.32 Moreover, the employer has an obligation to hold regular training sessions on accident prevention and occupational sanitary, fire protection and other health and safety rules. It is strictly forbidden to allow employees to start work without attending such training or without passing an internal health and safety exam held by the employer.33 In practice, the employee must sign the register journal before starting work. The employee's signature shows his or her understanding of his or her personal duties, and of any risks in the event of failure to observe safety rules while performing his or her duties.
ii Environmental compliance
Taking into consideration that sites of mining activities are classified as hazardous production facilities,34 any company involved in mining applies for civil liability insurance against risks to the environment, and the life, health and property of third parties.35
Before acceptance by an insurance scheme, the company's activity is subject to examination to establish its hazardous classification level. Identification of the level of hazard is performed by an expert body upon the company's application in an order prescribed by the inspectorate. The maximum term for inspection of the mining project by the expert body is three months.36
iii Third-party rights
There is no possibility for the application of third-party rights (including the rights of indigenous peoples) or other similar rights. The law guarantees the freedom of a company's activity as long as it is not prohibited by Uzbek law.37
iv Additional considerations
It is important to consider that the law imposes criminal liability for environmental pollution and failure to arrange adequate measures for liquidation of environmental accidents. Criminal liability is also imposed in the event of failure to follow health and safety precautions.38
The Law on Environmental Protection governs the prevention, detection and suppression of violations in the field of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources, and ensures an increase in the effectiveness of environmental measures.39
Operations, processing and sale of minerals
i Processing and operations
Uzbekistan is not a party to any World Trade Organization instruments, but it participates in regional agreements, such as those of the CIS. Under Uzbek law, international agreements prevail over national legislation.
In general, equipment and machinery being imported need to go through customs clearance, obligatory certification and licensing under Uzbek customs regulations.
Equipment and machinery can be imported under the temporary import regime or for free circulation (permanent import regime). The former has a maximum two-year time limitation. Economic policy measures (e.g., import duties, quotas) are usually not applied to temporarily imported goods. As to duties, the importer shall pay all due customs duties. In order to temporarily import equipment and machinery, the importer has to obtain the permission of the customs body.
The permanent import regime represents full import and requires full payment of customs duties and charges. Certain goods are also subject to certification. If there is an intergovernmental agreement on the recognition of certificates of Uzbekistan with the country of origin, the certificate issued by the manufacturer shall suffice. If there is no such agreement, the certification is carried out by the national certification agencies.
Depending on the type of goods (such as equipment using radioactive substances), a special import licence may apply.
For goods originating from one of the 46 countries to which Uzbekistan provides most-favoured-nation treatment, customs duties are paid according to the rates established by the law. If the country of origin is not a country with most-favoured-nation treatment, customs duties are paid at a double rate.
Extracted minerals have to be prepared for shipping and processing in accordance with the requirements of the project, applicable state standards and technical conditions. Extracted minerals supplied to the consumer, or for processing, must be regarded as the final product of mining, subject to strict controls and accounting in accordance with the Law on Subsoil. Technical specifications for the supply of mineral resources must be duly coordinated with and approved by any interested bodies. Regulations generally require the exercise of due care upon processing to ensure that the quality of the extracted minerals does not deteriorate.40
As to the use of foreign labour, the law requires work permits both for the employer ('the right to employ foreign labour') and the employee ('the right to work') issued by the Agency on Foreign Labour Migration. Work permits are issued for up to a one-year period and can be extended. The validity of the issued right to work for highly qualified and qualified foreign specialists is up to three years at the request of the applicant, with the possibility of an unlimited number of renewals. At the same time, highly qualified and qualified foreign specialists have the right to work part-time in Uzbekistan without receiving confirmation for part-time work.41
Regarding the engagement of the services of foreign companies, the law does not restrict such engagement and qualifies it as the import of services. The law requires such import contracts to be executed in writing.
ii Sale, import and export of extracted or processed minerals
The sale, import and export of minerals are subject to general rules of contracting and import-export operations unless specific provisions are envisaged by the mining project documentation or the PSA. Mining companies generally exercise freedom of contracting and sale of minerals unless specific provisions and limitations are stipulated by the project documentation or the PSA and other agreements. Strategic minerals are also subject to export licences.42
iii Foreign investment
For the purposes of works execution under a PSA, the investor must have a special banking account on the territory of Uzbekistan, or in the foreign states, specialised only in the mentioned types of works.43
There are currency limitations. For example, domestic companies cannot make payments with each other in a foreign currency, including to their accounts outside of the country. In addition, control of foreign currency in Uzbekistan is rather strict; foreign currency is generally sold by the foreign exchange market or banks. According to the new version of the Law on Currency Regulation, residents have the right to transfer foreign currency from their accounts with Uzbek banks or banks outside Uzbekistan to their accounts with banks of Uzbekistan without restrictions. The purchase and sale of foreign currency by residents and non-residents on the territory of Uzbekistan is carried out exclusively through the banks of Uzbekistan, and the purchase and sale of foreign currency on the interbank foreign exchange market is carried out exclusively by banks of Uzbekistan and the Central Bank.
Investors in the mining industry enjoy the general investment protection offered by Uzbek law, and there is no special legislative act for mining investors. Investment law guarantees:
- protection against discrimination;
- protection against effects of certain changes in legislation worsening (through complication of repatriation of profits, additional requirements for the size of investments, restrictions on equity participation of a foreign investor in the charter capital of enterprises in the Republic of Uzbekistan, incorporation of additional procedures for issuing and renewing visas of foreign investors etc.) the investing conditions existing at the date of investment for a 10-year period;
- protection against nationalisation; and
- protection of the rights to profit repatriation and access to information.
Additional guarantees, such as government guarantees, state project financing and special tax and payment regimes are provided on the basis of special presidential decrees. It is common practice that any major investment projects or investment agreements in Uzbekistan are generally implemented by issuing of special decrees.
Tax issues in Uzbekistan are governed by the Tax Code effective from 30 December 2019.
The Uzbekistan taxation system mainly falls under two headings: taxes and fees. The Tax Code envisages the following definitions:
- 'taxes' are mandatory payments established by the Tax Code, paid to the state budget or to the state trust fund; and
- 'fees' are mandatory payments to the budget system established by Uzbek law, the payment of which is a condition for legal actions performed by authorised bodies and officials, including provision of certain rights, or the issuance of licences and other permits.
The following taxes are applied in Uzbekistan:
- value added tax;
- excise tax;
- profit tax;
- personal income tax;
- subsoil use tax;
- water use tax;
- property tax;
- land tax; and
- social tax.
The procedure for introducing, calculating and paying fees is determined by the Tax Code and other legal acts.
The Tax Code
The Tax Code provides the following tax regimes: the standard tax regime and the simplified tax regime.
The following special tax regimes are established for certain categories of taxpayers in Uzbekistan:
- sales tax;
- for companies under PSAs; and
- for participants in special economic zones and certain categories of taxpayers.
Special tax regimes may include exemption from certain taxes, the application of reduced tax rates and other tax benefits.
A foreign investor, with the exception of cases provided for by legislation on production sharing agreements, pays taxes provided for the Tax Code at tax rates established for residents of Uzbekistan, unless otherwise provided by the PSA during the term of the PSA.
Standard tax regime
The standard tax regime envisages the payment by companies of all the aforementioned taxes and compulsory payments. Operation under the standard tax regime does not require companies to meet certain specific requirements under the Tax Code (i.e., investments).
i Taxes and fees for subsoil users
In accordance with the Tax Code, subsoil users pay the following taxes and fees: subsoil use tax and bonuses (subscription and commercial discovery).
Subsoil use tax
Subsoil use taxpayers are subsoil users that extract mineral resources from the subsoil, useful components from minerals or man-made mineral formations, and carry out the processing of mineral resources with the extraction of mineral components. Tax rates are established by Article 452 of the Tax Code. For example, the tax rate for mining of gold, silver, copper uranium and zinc is 10 per cent.
The tax base for subsoil use tax is determined based on the cost of the volume of extracted (mined) finished product, calculated on the weighted average realisation price for a reporting period.
Bonuses are one-time payments made by subsoil users. Subsoil users pay the following bonuses: subscription and commercial discovery.
The subscription bonus is a one-time fixed payment by the subsoil user for the right to carry out his or her activity in prospecting and exploration of mineral resources on the basis of the relevant licence. The minimum subscription bonus is set in the following amounts for the right to search and explore deposits:
- hydrocarbons – 5,000 base estimated values (BEV) ($110,000);44
- gold – 1,000 BEV ($22,000);
- precious (except gold), rare and noble metals – 500 BEV ($11,000);
- ore minerals (with the exception of the right to search and explore deposits of gold, precious, rare and noble metals) – 250 BEV ($5,500); and
- non-metallic minerals – 50 BEV ($1,100).
Commercial discovery bonus
The commercial discovery bonus is a payment for each commercial discovery of mineral deposits on a subsoil plot specified in the relevant licence, based on the value of the volume of recoverable mineral reserves with reference to commodity stock exchanges. The law also sets the bonus for hydrocarbons, precious and rare metals, ore and non-metallic minerals at the rate of 0.1 per cent.
iii Other taxes payable by subsoil users
Subsoil users also pay corporate tax and VAT (presently 15 per cent).
Tax rates on corporate income tax are set in the following amounts:45
|Payers||Tax rates in % of taxable base|
|Legal entities carrying out the production of cement (clinker)||20|
Incomes paid in the form of dividends and interest to residents of Uzbekistan are taxed at a rate of 5 per cent.46 Excess profits tax is abolished as per the new Tax Code from 1 January 2020.
Outlook and trends
The government is currently in the process of implementing several regulations intended to simplify licensing procedures and boost foreign investment in the mining industry.
Presidential Resolution No. PP-4124, dated 17 January 2019 approved measures for the further development of the mining industry. For example, as per the Resolution, major mining companies must prepare various reports in accordance with international standards to make them more accessible to a potential investor.
Presidential Resolution No. PP-4198, dated 20 February 2019 approved the List of 275 non-metallic mineral deposits (plots) open for investment.
Presidential Resolution PP-4401, dated 23 July 2019 provides for the improvement of the geological study of the subsurface and the implementation of the state programme for the development and replacement of the mineral resource base for 2020–2021.
To conclude, adoption and further implementation of these presidential and government decisions signal that mining and subsoil use comprise one of the leading economic sectors and are considered as one of the key areas for attracting foreign investment to the Republic of Uzbekistan.
1 Eldor Mannopov is a managing partner, Bobur Shamsiev is a partner and Javokhir Karimov is a junior associate at Dentons Tashkent.
2 Top 20 gold producing countries in 2018. Available online: www.mining.com/featured-article/top-20-gold-producing-countries. Date of access: 24 May 2020.
3 Uranium resources by country in 2017. Available online: www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/mining-of-uranium/world-uranium-mining-production.aspx. Date of access: 25 May 2020.
6 Presidential Resolution No. PP-4124 dated 17 January 2019.
7 For more information on licensing, see Section III.ii.
8 Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. 444-II 'On Subsoil' (new edition) dated 13 December 2002.
9 Article 7 of the Law on Subsoil.
10 Section 6 of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 403, dated 23 June 2020.
11 Article 26 of the Law on Subsoil.
12 Section 10 of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 403, dated 23 June 2020.
13 Association of construction materials producers.
14 Section 26 of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 546, dated 1 July 2019.
15 Article 47 of the Law on Subsoil.
16 Article 26 of the Law on Subsoil.
17 Section 27 of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 546, dated 1 July 2019.
18 Section 9 of the Regulation approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 403 dated 23 June 2020 for strategic minerals and Section 27 of the Regulation approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 546 dated 1 July 2019 for non-ferrous minerals.
19 Article 25 of the Land Code.
20 Section 2 of the Presidential Resolution No. PP-3550, dated 20 February 2018.
21 Article 44 of the Law on Subsoil.
22 Articles 9 and 11 of the Law on Environmental Protection, dated 9 December 1992.
23 Article 36 of the Land Code.
24 Article 15 of the Law on Wastes, dated 5 April 2002.
25 Sections 5, 13, 14 and 16 of the Uniform Rules of Subsoil Protection for Development of Mineral Deposits, dated 4 December 2018.
26 Section 3 of the Rules on Compulsory State Insurance of Employer's Civil Liability, No. 177, dated 24 June 2009.
27 Article 6 of the Law on Labour Safety (new edition), dated 22 September 2016.
28 Articles 23 and 28 of the Law on Labour Safety.
29 Article 214 of the Labour Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, dated 21 December 1995.
30 Article 4 of the Law on Insurance Activity.
31 Article 12 of the Law on Labour Safety (new edition), dated 22 September 2016.
32 Article 213 of the Labour Code.
33 Article 25 of the Law on Labour Safety.
34 Article 4 of the Law on Industrial Safety of Dangerous Production Facilities, dated 28 September 2006.
35 Regulation No. 271 on the Order of Compulsory Insurance of Civil Liability for the Infliction of Harm to the Life, Health and (or) Property of Other Persons and Environment in Case of the Accident at Dangerous Production Facility, dated 10 December 2008.
36 Sections 3, 17 and 19 of the Regulation No. 271 on the Order of Identification of Hazardous Production Facilities.
37 Articles 19 and 23 of the Law on Guarantees of Economic Activity Freedom (new edition), dated 2 May 2012.
38 Articles 193 to 196 and 257 of the Criminal Code, dated 22 September 1994.
39 Article 3 of the Law on Environmental Control (new edition), dated 27 December 2013.
40 For the applicable health and safety regulations upon processing, see Section IV.i.
41 The Regulation 'On the procedure for attracting and using labour in the Republic of Uzbekistan' approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of 25 March 2019, No. 244.
42 Annex 1 of the Presidential Decree No. UP-5215, dated 3 November 2017
43 Article 22 of the Law on Production Sharing Agreements, dated 7 December 2001.
44 As of 17 June 2020, 1 BEV is 223,000 soms (approximately US$22). The US$ rate on 17 June 2020 is 10.151,90 soms.
45 Article 337 of the Tax Code.
46 Article 381 of the Tax Code.