The Product Regulation and Liability Review: Singapore

Introduction to the product liability framework

In Singapore, there is no particular legislation that solely sets out liabilities that might arise owing to the manufacture, distribution or supply of a defective product. Rather, product liability laws span a wide range of statutes as well as common law.

Product regulation and liability issues span a number of laws and regulations in Singapore, as specific laws cater to different types of products. For instance, the Sale of Food Act (SFA) and the Food Regulations issued pursuant to the SFA deal with food products. Medical devices and drugs (therapeutic products) are regulated under the Health Products Act and several regulations. General consumer goods and controlled goods (mainly household electrical appliances) fall under either the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act or the Consumer Protection (Trade Descriptions and Safety Requirements) Act, or both. The respective regulators and their ambits of enforcement for these categories of products are examined in greater detail in Section II.

Regulatory oversight

The various government bodies that oversee the regulation of products include:

  1. the Medical Device Branch of the Health Sciences Authority (HSA), which regulates medical devices in Singapore;
  2. the Therapeutic Products Branch of the HSA, which focuses on therapeutic products;
  3. the Land Transport Authority, which regulates vehicles by requiring their registration and that these vehicles be compliant with registration and technical requirements;
  4. the Competition and Consumer Commission of Singapore (CCCS), which protects consumers against unfair trade practices in Singapore;
  5. Enterprise Singapore, which regulates general consumer goods and ensures that the consumer goods supplied are safe; and
  6. the Singapore Food Agency, which regulates the import and sale of food.2,3

These powers of regulatory oversight are provided for by the relevant laws and regulations. For example, Section 12G of the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act (CPFTA)4 provides CCCS with the power to conduct an investigation if it has reasonable grounds for suspecting, inter alia, that a supplier has engaged, is engaging or is likely to engage in an unfair practice. This power to conduct investigations is supplemented by ancillary powers, such as the power to apply for an injunction to restrain a person from knowingly abetting, aiding, permitting or procuring a supplier to engage in an unfair practice,5 and the power to require documents, articles or information.6 The Consumers Association of Singapore (CASE) also administers certain aspects of the CPFTA and handles consumer complaints generally.

The Consumer Protection (Safety Requirements) Regulations (CPSRR)7 and the Consumer Protection (Consumer Goods Safety Requirements) Regulations 2011 (CGSR),8 issued pursuant to the Consumer Protection (Trade Descriptions and Safety Requirements) Act (CPSRA),9 provide Enterprise Singapore with the power to monitor the safety of certain goods known as controlled goods (e.g., household electrical, electronic and gas products) and general consumer goods, respectively.

Causes of action

There are six causes of action under which a manufacturer, distributor or seller may be held liable for injury to persons or damage to chattels or property as a result of a defective product.

i Breach of contract

To rely on this cause of action, there must be a valid and legally binding contract between the claimant and the manufacturer, distributor or seller of the product. In addition, there must have been a breach by the manufacturer, distributor or seller of either an express or an implied contractual term.

Although express contractual terms and implied terms are contract specific, terms implied in law apply more uniformly across contracts of a similar kind. For instance, in a contract where a seller sells goods in the course of a business, there is an implied condition that the goods supplied under the contract are of satisfactory quality10 – namely, they should meet the standard that a reasonable person would regard as satisfactory, taking account of any description of the goods, the price (if relevant) and all the other relevant circumstances.11 The same applies for a contract where the transferor transfers the property in goods in the course of a business.12 Where these standards are not met, it is most likely possible to succeed in a claim for a contractual breach of an implied term.

One exception is where the unsatisfactory quality of the goods had been specifically drawn to the buyer's or transferee's attention before the contract was made. Another exception is where the buyer or transferee had examined the goods before the contract was made and that examination ought to have revealed the unsatisfactory quality of the goods.13

ii Tort of negligence

A manufacturer, distributor or seller may be held liable for injury to persons or property caused by the negligent manufacture, distribution or supply of a product.

To establish negligence, a claimant must prove that the manufacturer, distributor or seller owes a duty of care to the claimant.14 Most often, the court would find that a manufacturer owes end consumers a duty of care to ensure that the goods do not cause injury or harm to the latter.15 Similarly, the court may find that a distributor owes a duty of care to the end consumers to check the safety of what it distributes.16 Next, the claimant must show that the manufacturer, distributor or seller has breached that duty of care by acting below the required standard of care.17 In addition, the breach must have resulted in damage to the claimant. This damage can be physical, psychiatric or economic in nature.18 Finally, any resulting losses cannot be too remote and should be adequately proved and quantified.19

iii Misrepresentation

A claimant can sue a manufacturer, distributor or seller for fraudulent or innocent misrepresentation.

To establish fraudulent misrepresentation, the claimant must show that the manufacturer, distributor or seller made a false representation and knew or believed the representation about the goods to be false,20 or did not believe in the truth of the representation, when it was made.21 If the claimant is unable to do so but is able to prove that the representation was made negligently, he or she may claim under the tort of negligence (see Section III.ii). Meanwhile, if the manufacturer, distributor or seller had acted neither fraudulently nor negligently, the claimant may be able to sue for innocent misrepresentation. Under the Misrepresentation Act,22 a person will be entitled to rescind a contract for innocent misrepresentation or claim damages in lieu of rescission.23

iv Claims under the CPFTA

A claim for product liability may also arise if a seller had entered into a transaction with an individual (who is not acting exclusively in the course of business) – namely, a consumer – and had engaged in unfair practices.24 An unfair practice is relevant to product liability insofar as a seller, for instance, makes a false or misleading claim in relation to the product being sold (e.g., advertising that a product is safe to use when it is actually not).

Even in the absence of an unfair practice, a seller would still owe obligations to the individual if the goods that have been ordered from the seller do not conform to the applicable contract at the time of delivery. Specifically, the seller is required to repair or replace the goods, to allow the individual to pay less for the goods by an appropriate amount or to allow the individual to rescind the contract with regard to the goods in question.25 These provisions in the CPFTA are also known colloquially as 'lemon laws'.

An aggrieved individual may seek to sue the seller regarding the unfair practice,26 though the amount claimed cannot exceed S$30,000.27 Should the claim be above S$30,000, the individual has the option of abandoning the excess and recovering an amount within the prescribed limit, which would be in full discharge of all demands in respect of that cause of action.28

v Filing a complaint with CASE

An affected consumer may also file a complaint with CASE to report a supplier that has engaged in an unfair practice. CASE is empowered to invite the supplier to enter into a voluntary compliance agreement, which may require the supplier to:

  1. compensate any consumer who has suffered loss or damage as a result of the unfair practice;
  2. reimburse CASE for any costs or expenses incurred by it; and
  3. publicise the voluntary compliance agreement.29

vi Failure to comply with regulations

Controlled goods

If an importer or manufacturer in Singapore intends, in the course of any trade or business, to supply or advertise for supply any controlled goods30 in Singapore, but fails to be registered or fails to register any of the controlled goods, it will be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding S$2,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or both.31 The same punishment applies if a manufacturer, distributor or seller does not recall controlled goods as required by Enterprise Singapore.32

Non-controlled goods

If a manufacturer, distributor or seller supplies goods that have been publicly declared as unsafe for failing to conform to prescribed safety standards33 in Singapore in the course of trade or business, it will be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding S$2,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or both.34 A second or subsequent offence will attract higher penalties.

Offences by corporations

Where an offence is proven to have been committed with the consent, connivance or neglect of an officer of the company, the officer as well as the company may be held liable for the offence.35


i Forum

Generally, product liability cases are heard in the same manner as most other civil cases (i.e., before a judge in the state courts or the Supreme Court of Singapore).

The court before which the claim will be brought at first instance is determined based on the quantum of the claim, as set out below:

  1. not exceeding S$60,000: magistrates' court;
  2. between S$60,000 and S$250,000: district court;36 and
  3. above S$250,000: High Court.

Any decisions made in these courts may subsequently be appealed to a higher court.37

An exception arises where the claim is below S$10,000 and can therefore be heard before the Small Claims Tribunal.38 However, this limit of S$10,000 can be increased to S$20,000 if both the manufacturer, distributor or seller and the claimant consent to the increase in writing.39

ii Burden of proof

The burden of proof is generally on the party that initiates an action against a manufacturer, distributor or seller. For instance, to claim that the implied contractual condition that the goods are of satisfactory quality has been breached, the claimant must show how the goods in question are not of satisfactory quality.40

However, should a claimant seek to rely on Section 12B(1) of the CPFTA as a cause of action, the lemon laws provide a presumption that goods that do not conform to the applicable contract at any time within six months of the date of delivery did not so conform as at the date of delivery, and it will be for the manufacturer, distributor or seller to prove otherwise.41

iii Defences

General defence: expiry of limitation period

Generally, a claimant may not bring an action founded on a contract or on tort after the expiration of six years from the date on which the cause of action accrued.42

However, for a negligence action for damages, different rules apply.

  1. Where the damages claimed consist of or include damages in respect of personal injuries to the claimant or any other person, an action may be brought within the later of:
    • three years of the date on which the cause of action accrued; or
    • three years of the earliest date on which the claimant has the knowledge required for bringing an action for damages in respect of the relevant injury.43
  2. For damages other than personal injuries, an action may be brought within the later of:
    • six years of the date on which the cause of action accrued; or
    • three years of the earliest date on which the claimant or any person in whom the cause of action was vested first had both the knowledge required for bringing an action for damages in respect of the relevant damage and a right to bring the action.44

Meanwhile, for an individual seeking to sue for unfair practices under Section 6 of the CPFTA, the action should be within two years of:

  1. the date of the occurrence of the most recent material event on which the action is based; or
  2. the earliest date on which the consumer had knowledge that the supplier had engaged in the unfair practice to which the action relates.45

General defence: laches

If a claimant delays making a claim, the court may exercise its discretion in dismissing the claim, even though the claim was made within the limitation period. The key factors that the court may consider are the length of the delay and whether the acts carried out during that time would cause injustice to the defendant.46

Exemption or limitation of liability clauses

A manufacturer, distributor or seller might seek to exclude liability for any contractual breaches or torts committed by including exclusion clauses in its contracts. However, an exclusion clause cannot exclude or restrict the manufacturer, distributor or seller's liability for any death or personal injury resulting from its negligent actions.47 As for other losses or damage that arise, the manufacturer, distributor or seller would be able to exclude or restrict its liability with a contractual clause, provided that the clause satisfies the requirement of reasonableness.48 In addition, as against a person dealing as a consumer, a seller cannot rely on an exclusion clause to exclude or restrict the liability that arises from the breach of an undertaking as to the conformity of goods with their descriptions or samples, or as to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose.49

Claims under the CPFTA

A seller may argue that the consumer did not act reasonably in the circumstances and therefore the actions of the seller cannot be considered as an unfair practice.50 If a consumer unreasonably relies on a product advertising claim that is mere puff – for example, 'Drink X gives you wings' – the seller of the product cannot be considered as having engaged in an unfair practice.

Tort of negligence

A manufacturer may assert that the claimant had either expressly or implicitly accepted the risk of harm associated with the manufacturer's conduct. However, the manufacturer must prove that the consumer had full knowledge and understanding of the risk,51 that the consumer had voluntarily assumed that risk,52 and that the risk that he or she assumed was the one that occurred.

In addition, a manufacturer may assert the partial defence of contributory negligence in a situation where the losses or harm suffered by the claimant was partly owing to the claimant's own fault. In this situation, the court may reduce damages accordingly as the court thinks just and equitable given his or her share of responsibility for the losses or harm suffered.53

iv Personal jurisdiction

Personal jurisdiction can be categorised under 'general civil jurisdiction' and 'specific civil jurisdiction'.

General civil jurisdiction

A manufacturer, distributor or seller is subject to the legal authority of Singaporean courts' jurisdiction if:

  1. the manufacturer, distributor or seller has been served with a writ or other originating process in Singapore or outside Singapore in the manner prescribed by the Rules of Court;54 or
  2. the manufacturer, distributor or seller has submitted to the High Court's jurisdiction.55

Specific civil jurisdiction

A manufacturer, distributor or seller that is a corporate entity may be subject to the legal authority of Singaporean courts' jurisdiction if the manufacturer, distributor or seller was incorporated in Singapore56 and service was effected on the manufacturer, distributor or seller at its registered address.57

Conversely, if the manufacturer, distributor or seller was not incorporated in Singapore, it first needs to be present within Singapore and then receive service of the claimant's originating process for the manufacturer, distributor or seller to be under Singaporean courts' jurisdiction.58

Forum non conveniens

Singaporean courts generally uphold choice of law and jurisdiction clauses in contracts and will apply the principle of forum non conveniens to determine whether Singapore is the appropriate forum to have the matter heard.

v Expert witnesses

Where a need arises for an expert's opinion on a matter, the court may at any time, of its own volition or on the application of a party to a dispute, appoint an independent expert.59 The expert should have scientific, technical, or other specialised knowledge based on his or her training, study or experience.60 This knowledge should be connected with the questions that he or she has been asked to address61 and be something that the court is likely to derive assistance from.62

If more than one such question arises, two or more such experts may be appointed to inquire into and report on any question of fact or opinion that does not involve a question of law or of construction.63 However, the court may limit the number of expert witnesses who may be called at the trial.64

vi Discovery

There are two key methods of discovery in civil actions initiated before Singaporean courts – namely, discovery through requests for the production of documents and discovery through interrogatories.

Request for the production of documents

General discovery

The court may at any time order any party to a cause or matter to give discovery by making and serving on any other party a list of documents that are or have been in its possession, custody or power.65

This list of documents comprises documents that:

  1. are or have been in the other party's possession, custody or power, and on which the party relies or will rely; and
  2. could adversely affect the party's own case, adversely affect the other party's case or support another party's case.66

In either case, discovery must be necessary for disposing fairly of the cause or matter, or for saving costs.67

After granting such an order, the court retains the discretion as to whether to release or modify the undertaking. Most often, it will release or modify the undertaking only in special circumstances and where the release or modification will not occasion injustice to the person giving discovery.68

Specific discovery

To supplement the process of general discovery, specific discovery is available if there are documents that fall within the scope of general discovery but have not been disclosed to the other party. The court may at any time, on the application of either party to a cause or matter, make an order requiring any other party to make an affidavit stating whether any document or any class of document specified or described in the application is, or has at any time been, in its possession, custody or power, and if not in its possession, custody or power, when it parted with it and what has become of it.

In addition to general and specific discovery, a party may apply for discovery before action69 or even discovery against a non-party.70 These are, however, exceptional situations that require a party to show why it is just for the court to grant such an order.71


A party to any cause or matter may apply to the court for an order giving it leave to serve on any other party interrogatories relating to any matter in question between that party and another party in the cause or matter.72 The interrogatories should be necessary either for disposing fairly of the cause or matter or for saving cost.73

The court may grant an order to administer interrogatories only if the party gives security for the costs of the person against whom the order is made, or on such other terms as the court thinks just.74 If the court is not satisfied that interrogatories are necessary, or are necessary at that stage of the cause or matter, the court may dismiss or adjourn the application, and shall in any case refuse to grant such an order.75

vii Apportionment

Regulatory obligations

If the products in question are medical devices or therapeutic products, the defective existing product registrant on the HSA's register will be held liable by the HSA for any products. Contractual arrangements may be made between the successor company and the previous registrant to apportion risk.

Tortious claims

The following considerations will apply to claims in tort.

Joint liability

A party that authorises, procures or instigates the commission of a wrong may be held jointly liable with the party that actually committed the wrong. Accordingly, if a director of a manufacturing company, for instance, authorises, procures or instigates the company to be negligent in the preparation of a product, or to be negligent or fraudulent in the making of representations to a consumer, the director can be held liable for his or her actions. In TV Media Pte Ltd v. De Cruz Andrea Heidi and Another Appeal, one of the defendants was held to have directed, authorised and procured a company's negligence because of his involvement in all the company's significant dealings with third parties, as well as his absolute control of the company.

Meanwhile, a person who participates in a common design or joint enterprise in the commission of a tort may also be held liable for his or her actions. 'Common design' refers to a shared intention that is manifested through either an express76 or an implied agreement.77

Several liability

There may be situations where, for instance, a manufacturer negligently produces a defective good, a seller then makes a fraudulent or negligent misrepresentation to the claimant regarding the same good, and both actions lead to the same damage to the claimant. In cases such as these, both the manufacturer and the seller can be held severally liable for the losses and damage suffered by the claimant through a tortious action.

Vicarious liability

To impose vicarious liability on the manufacturer, distributor or seller because of an individual's wrong:

  1. there must be an employer–employee relationship between the manufacturer, distributor or seller and the individual;
  2. the individual must have committed a tort; and
  3. the individual's tort must have been so closely connected with his or her employment that it is fair and just that the manufacturer, distributor or seller should be held vicariously liable for the individual's tort.78

First, to determine whether there is a close connection, the court would take into account factors including, but not limited to, the opportunity that the manufacturer, distributor or seller afforded the individual to abuse his or her power and the extent to which the wrongful act may have furthered the manufacturer, distributor or seller's aims.79

Second, to decide whether it is fair and just to impose vicarious liability, the court would take into account all relevant circumstances. This includes policy considerations such as the provision of compensation for innocent victims and the deterrence of future harm against employers to reduce the incidents of accidents and tortious behaviour by their employees.

Once vicarious liability is established, the manufacturer, distributor or seller can be held liable for the losses and damage arising from the individual's tort. The manufacturer, distributor or seller ultimately may not have to bear the liability if the manufacturer, distributor or seller had previously sought an indemnity from its employee.

viii Mass tort actions

Where numerous identifiable persons have the same interest in a proceeding, the proceeding may be begun and, unless the court otherwise orders, continued by or against any one or more of them as representing all or as representing all except one or more of them.80 Any judgment or order subsequently given would then be binding on all the persons as representing those whom the claimants sue.81 These actions help to ensure that all interested parties are represented without being joined as parties, so that the dispute in the suit may be finally determined.82

ix Damages

Breach of contract

Where a manufacturer, distributor or seller breaches a contract with the claimant, the court will compensate the claimant with damages for the losses that he or she has suffered as a result. In particular, the consumer may, in many situations, elect between expectation damages and reliance damages, though these damages are subject to proof. Expectation damages are damages to put the consumer in the position that he or she would have been in had the contract been performed.83 Where a good is defective, a consumer may claim for the diminution in market value of the good owing to the defect, or the cost of repairing the good. Conversely, reliance damages are based on the expenses that the claimant incurred in reliance on the manufacturer, distributor or seller's promise to perform its obligations.84

An exception to the freedom to elect what kind of damages to receive is where expectation damages are hard to quantify or are too speculative. In this situation, the consumer may receive reliance damages instead.85

Claims under the CPFTA

Damages claimable under the CPFTA in respect of an unfair trade practice are subject to a limit of S$30,000.86 Similarly, where the claim is not for money but for a remedy or relief in respect of the subject matter, the value of the claim should not exceed S$30,000.

Tort of negligence

If a claimant is physically injured by a negligent act of the manufacturer, distributor or seller, he or she may claim damages for both pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses. With regard to pecuniary losses, the court will award damages that would put the claimant in the position as if the injury had not been sustained.87 This may include (present and future) medical expenses, loss of future income, future transport costs, and future nursing care and nursing home expenses.88 With regard to non-pecuniary losses, the court may award damages for the claimant's loss of amenities and for pain and suffering.89


If the court finds the manufacturer, distributor or seller liable for fraudulent misrepresentation, the court may award all losses flowing directly from the claimant's reliance upon the fraudulent misrepresentation, regardless of whether the loss was foreseeable (and including all consequential losses as well).90 Similarly, the manufacturer, distributor or seller would be liable for the same type of damages if it had made a negligent misrepresentation to a claimant that led to the claimant suffering losses. This is unless the claimant had reasonable ground to believe and did believe up to the time the contract was made that the facts represented were true.91 If the manufacturer, distributor or seller is found liable for innocent misrepresentation, the court may also order damages in lieu of rescission.92

Year in review

i Statutory developments

There were no relevant statutory developments in the area of product liability in 2021.

ii Case law developments

There were no relevant case law developments in the area of product liability in 2021.

iii Other developments

New Standard Dispute Management Framework for E-marketplaces

On 26 November 2021, CASE launched the Standard Dispute Management Framework for E-marketplaces (the Framework). The Framework serves as a guide for e-marketplaces on how to resolve consumer disputes promptly and how to provide greater assurance to consumers when they shop online.

The Framework covers the following areas.

Verification and reliability of merchants

E-marketplaces should verify the identity of merchants, such as business-registered names, identification numbers and addresses. E-marketplaces should also provide a means for consumers to assess merchants' reliability (e.g., through rating scores).

Information for consumers

E-marketplaces should ensure that information on their standard dispute resolution framework is clear, easy to understand and easily accessible. This can be achieved through terms and conditions, simple step-by-step guides and frequently asked questions.

E-marketplaces should also ensure that communication tools for dispute management are accessible and operational. Communication tools, such as an online chat system for consumers, are encouraged.

Time frame for dispute resolution

E-marketplaces should ensure that they or their merchants process a consumer's complaint within seven days of receiving the complaint.

Disputes should be concluded within a reasonable time frame, with consumers being provided with regular updates on their status, with clear justifications provided for closure of the disputes.

Resolution, refunds and exchanges

E-marketplaces should have an exchange and return policy and ensure that merchants comply with the policy.

The exchange and return policy should include terms such as:

  1. 'the product shall be delivered within the stated time frame, failing which a refund would automatically be offered'; and
  2. 'consumers should not have to pay for the postage fees or other costs for returning the non-conforming or defective products to merchants'.
Facilitating dispute resolution

E-marketplaces should keep and maintain clear records of correspondence relating to all disputes to facilitate dispute resolution, and cooperate with consumers to resolve disputes in an economically feasible manner.

At present, only one e-marketplace has signed a memorandum of understanding with CASE. This agreement is the first agreement of its kind in the world between a national consumer association and a major e-marketplace. CASE intends to engage with other industry players to encourage greater adoption of the Framework.


1 Lim Ren Jun is a principal and Clara Ng is an associate at Baker McKenzie.Wong & Leow.

2 Section 3(1) read with Section 2 of the Sale of Food Act (Cap. 283, 2002 Rev. Ed.).

3 The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) was dissolved in April 2019 and its food-related responsibilities were transferred to the Singapore Food Agency.

4 Cap. 52A, 2009 Rev. Ed.

5 CPFTA, Section 10.

6 CPFTA, Section 12H.

7 Cap. 53, Rg 1, 2004 Rev. Ed.

8 Cap. 53, No. S 113.

9 Cap. 53, 2013 Rev. Ed.

10 Section 14(2) of the Sale of Goods Act (Cap. 393, 1999 Rev. Ed.) (SOGA).

11 SOGA, Section 14(2A).

12 Section 4(2) of the Supply of Goods Act (Cap. 394, 1999 Rev. Ed.) (SPGA).

13 SOGA, Section 14(2C) and SPGA, Section 4(3).

14 Spandeck Engineering (S) Pte Ltd v. Defence Science & Technology Agency [2007] 4 SLR(R) 100; [2007] SGCA 37 (Spandeck) at [21].

15 Donoghue v. Stevenson [1932] AC 562.

16 Watson v. Buckley, Osborne, Garrett & Co, Ltd [1940] 1 All ER 174.

17 Spandeck at [21].

18 Spandeck at [115].

19 Spandeck at [21].

20 DBS Bank Ltd v. Carrier Singapore (Pte) Ltd [2008] 3 SLR 261.

21 Taylor v. Ashton (1843) 11 M & W 401 at 415.

22 Cap. 390, 1994 Rev. Ed. (Misrepresentation Act).

23 Misrepresentation Act, Section 2(2).

24 CPFTA, Section 6(1) read with Section 2(1).

25 CPFTA, Sections 12B(1)–(2).

26 CPFTA, Section 6(1).

27 CPFTA, Section 6(2) read with Section 6(6).

28 CPFTA, Section 6(5).

29 CPFTA, Section 8.

30 See First Schedule of the CPSRR.

31 CPSRR, Regulation 5.

32 CPSRR, Regulation 4(3).

33 CGSR, Regulations 3 and 4.

34 CGSR, Regulation 3(3).

35 CPSRA, Section 17.

36 Section 19(4) read with Section 2(1) of the State Courts Act (Cap. 321, 2007 Rev. Ed.).

37 Orders 55D and 57 of the Rules of Court (Cap. 322, R 5, 2014 Rev. Ed.) (ROC).

38 Section 5(3) read with Section 2(1) of the Small Claims Tribunal Act (Cap. 308, 1998 Rev. Ed.) (SCTA).

39 SCTA, Section 5(4).

40 Compact Metal Industries Ltd v. PPG Industries (Singapore) Ltd [2006] SGHC 242 at [102].

41 CPFTA, Section 12B(3).

42 Section 6(1)(a) of the Limitation Act (Cap. 163, 1996 Rev. Ed.) (LA).

43 LA, Section 24A(2).

44 LA, Section 24A(3).

45 CPFTA, Section 12.

46 Management Corporation Strata Title No. 473 v. De Beers Jewellery Pte Ltd [2002] SGCA 13 at [33]–[34], applying Lindsay Petroleum Co v. Hurd (1874) L.R. 5 P.C. 221.

47 Section 2(1) of the Unfair Contract Terms Act (Cap. 396, 1994 Rev. Ed.) (UCTA).

48 UCTA, Section 2(1).

49 UCTA, Section 6(2)(a).

50 CPFTA, Section 5(3)(a).

51 Thomas v. Quartermaine (1887) 18 QBD 685.

52 Williams v. Birmingham Battery and Metal Co [1899] 2 QB 338.

53 Section 3(1) of the Contributory Negligence and Personal Injuries Act (Cap. 54, 2002 Rev. Ed.).

54 Cap. 322, R 5, 2014 Rev. Ed.

55 Section 16(1) of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Cap. 322, 2007 Rev. Ed.) (SCJA).

56 SCJA, Section 17(c), read with Section 4(1) of the Companies Act (Cap 50, 2006 Rev. Ed.).

57 Companies Act, Section 387.

58 SCJA, Section 16(1)(a).

59 ROC, Order 40, Rule 1(1).

60 Section 47(2) of the Evidence Act (Cap. 97, 1997 Rev. Ed.) (EA).

61 ROC, Order 40, Rule 1(4).

62 EA, Section 47(1).

63 ROC, Order 40, Rule 1(1).

64 ROC, Order 40A, Rule 1(1).

65 ROC, Order 24, Rule 1(1).

66 ROC, Order 24, Rules 1(2)(a) and 1(2)(b)(i)–(iii).

67 ROC, Order 24, Rule 7.

68 Crest Homes plc v. Marks [1987] AC 829 at 860.

69 ROC, Order 24, Rule 6(1).

70 ROC, Order 24, Rule 6(2).

71 ROC, Order 24, Rule 6(5).

72 ROC, Order 26, Rule 1(2).

73 ROC, Order 26, Rule 1(1).

74 ROC, Order 26A, Rule 3.

75 ROC, Order 26A, Rule 2.

76 Trek Technology (Singapore) Pte Ltd v. FE Global Electronics Pte Ltd and Others and Other Suits (No. 2) [2005] 3 SLR 389, citing Morton-Norwich Products Inc v. Intercen Limited [1978] RPC 501 at 512.

77 ibid., citing Unilever Plc v. Gillette (UK) Limited [1989] RPC 583 at 609.

78 Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (Publ), Singapore Branch v. Asia Pacific Breweries (Singapore) Pte Ltd [2011] 3 SLR 540 at [75].

79 ibid., at [87].

80 ROC, Order 15, Rule 12(1).

81 ROC, Order 15, Rule 12(3).

82 Abdul Rahman v. Ling How Doong and others [1994] 1 SLR(R) 1054; [1994] SGHC 92.

83 Gunac Enterprises (Pte) Ltd v. Utraco Pte Ltd [1995] 1 SLR 11 at 14.

84 Van Der Horst Engineering Pte Ltd v. Rotol Singapore Ltd [2006] 2 SLR 586 at [54].

85 McRae v. Commonwealth Disposals Commission (1950) 84 CLR 377.

86 CPFTA, Section 6(6).

87 Chartered Electronics Industries Pte Ltd v. Comtech IT Pte Ltd [1998] 3 SLR 502 at [16].

88 Poh Huat Heng Corp Pte Ltd and others v. Hafizul Islam Kofil Uddin [2012] SGCA 31 at [7].

89 Tan Kok Lam (next friend to Teng Eng) v. Hong Choon Peng [2001] SGCA 27.

90 Wishing Star Ltd v. Jurong Town Corp [2008] 2 SLR 909 at [21], affirming Doyle v. Olby (Ironmongers) Ltd [1969] 2 QB 158.

91 Misrepresentation Act, Section 2(1).

92 ibid., Section 2(2).

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